– Knowing what – Activating additional representations – Often includes knowing that something has been encountered previously.
05/13/09 Introduction to Cognition 12 What aretwo major types of long-term memory? 1. Semantic and sensory 2. Verbal and propositional 3. Procedural and Declarative 4. Abstract and concrete 5. I don’t know
05/13/09 Introduction to Cognition 13 Arethereother kinds of memory? Atkinson & Schiffrin’s 3-stagemodel Baddeley’s Working Memory Phonological loop Articulatory loop & phonological store Visuospatial sketch pad Central Executive Buffer Pavio’s dual-code theory: separate representations & stores for verbal & visual information
05/13/09 Introduction to Cognition 14 Examples of two kinds of memory: Learning to read upside down print (Kolers, 1976) Students read 200 pages of upsidedown print; a year later, cameback, repeated reading, tested for recognition.
05/13/09 Introduction to Cognition 15 Speed of reading upsidedown print increased with practice • Increased speed with practice is an indicator of procedural learning. Even normal reading speed increased with practice. • Thelearning function is a log function. Inverted text Normal text
05/13/09 Introduction to Cognition 16 Students recognized articles they read in upside down print Memory for content of passages that have been read is an exampleof declarativememory. Kolers had students sort articles into thosethey had read upside down twice, only a year prior, only recently, both a year prior and recently, and never seen before.
05/13/09 Introduction to Cognition 17 Which is the distorted face?
05/13/09 Introduction to Cognition 18 Looking at faces, recognizing individuals, involves two memory systems Two kinds of learning/memory areinvolved Procedural memory – how we scan faces, recognition of a face as onewe’veseen before Declarativememory – what we remember about theperson: name, last encounter, key facts
05/13/09 Introduction to Cognition 19 Upright Thatcher Was on right Was on left
05/13/09 Introduction to Cognition 20 Why aren’t we better at processing upside down faces? We lose information about spatial relationships. Our representation of faces includes orientation, and spatial relationships between elements of faces. Viewing upside down faces requires too many transformations – more than can be accommodated in working memory.
05/13/09 Introduction to Cognition 21 Cognition is theguidancesystemfor action • Guidancesystem: – Perception of objects and/or internal states – Planning and initiation of movement – Monitoring and control of movement, effects of movement • Movement system: peripheral components and central servomechanisms – Bones, ligaments, joints, tendons, muscles, sensory and motor neurons – Basal ganglia, cerebellum store representations of learned actions, smooth theexecution
05/13/09 Introduction to Cognition 22 Cognition is theguidancesystemfor action The purpose of cognition is to perform effective actions in the world. Effective physical actions depend on complex mental actions.
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- Spring '07
- Cognitive Psychology, ognition, se pre ntations