ch12

Psychology in Action

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4. Schachter's Two-Factor Theory – Schachter’s two-factor theory suggests that emotions depend on two factors--physical arousal and a cognitive labeling of the arousal. People notice what is going on around them, as well as their own bodily responses, and then label the emotion accordingly. Research Highlight: Are Abused Children More Alert to Negative Emotions? – Abused children's greater sensitivity to negative emotions, while adaptive in a threatening environment, causes difficulties when these children interact in normal settings. IV. CRITICAL THINKING ABOUT MOTIVATION AND EMOTION A. Intrinsic Versus Extrinsic Motivation – Intrinsic motivation stems from internal factors such as satisfaction whereas external motivation involves external rewards or avoidance of punishment. Research suggests that extrinsic rewards may lower motivation and interest, if they are not based on competency. B. The Polygraph as a Lie Detector -The polygraph measures changes in emotional arousal (increase heart rate, blood pressure, and so on). Although the polygraph is used in police work and for employment purposes, psychologists generally object to this practice because they find the polygraph is a poor predictor of guilt or innocence or of truth or lies. Instructor’s Resource Guide              Chapter 12                                     Page   117
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C. Emotional Intelligence (EI) - Emotional intelligence involves knowing and managing emotions, empathy, and maintaining satisfying relationships. Some researchers like Daniel Goleman emphasize the importance of emotional intelligence (EQ) which involves self-awareness, impulse control, persistence, zeal, self-motivation, empathy, and social deftness. Gender and Cultural Diversity: How Culture, Evolution, and Emotion – Most psychologists believe that emotions result from a complex interplay between evolution and culture. Studies have identified 7 out 10 basic emotions that are universally experienced and expressed in similar ways across almost all cultures. Display rules differ across cultures and between men and women. T eaching R esources SECTION I – THEORIES AND CONCEPTS OF MOTIVATION Learning Objectives #’s 1 - 2 Lecture Lead-Ins # 1 Lecture Extenders # 1 Discussion Questions #’s 1, 2, 3, 4 Active Learning Activities #’s 12.1, 12.3, 12.5 Critical Thinking Exercise # 12.2 Gender and Cultural Diversity Activity # 12.1 Writing Project # 12.1 Instructor’s Resource Guide              Chapter 12                                     Page   118
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SECTION II – MOTIVATION AND BEHAVIOR Learning Objectives #’s 3-8 Lecture Extenders # 1 Discussion Questions #’s 3, 4 Active Learning Activities #’s 12.2, 12.3, 12.4 Brain-Based Learning #'s 12.1, 12.3 SECTION III - THEORIES AND CONCEPTS OF EMOTION Learning Objectives #’s 9 - 10 Lecture Lead-Ins #’s 2 - 4 Discussion Questions # 5 Active Learning Activities #’s 12.6, 12.7, 12.9, 12.10, 12.11 Brain-Based Learning #''s 12.1 - 12.3 Critical Thinking Exercise # 12.1
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