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12 what molecule is the final electron acceptor in

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12. What molecule is the final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain of the light reaction? What molecule forms after it accepts the electrons? 13. Describe what happens to an electron in chlorophyll when a photon of light energy is absorbed. 14. Distinguish between cyclic electron flow and noncyclic electron flow. Provide a thorough description of both processes. 15. Why are both photosystems I and II required for photosynthesis? Can cyclic phosphorylation alone support photosynthesis? 16. Create a chart to compare mitochondria and chloroplasts in terms of source of electrons, electron carrier, where H + are pumped from, where H + are pumped to, and where the ATP form. 17. Explain how the energy transformation step of photosynthesis occurs. How is light energy converted to chemical energy in the form of ATP and NADPH? 18. In what ways does the Calvin cycle depended on the light reaction? 19. The Calvin cycle consists of three stages: carbon fixation, reduction and regeneration of RuBP. Explain the role of each of these steps within the Calvin cycle. 20. Why are both ATP and NADPH required to produce sugar? 21. Summarize the relationships among CO 2 , G3P, RuBP, rubisco, glucose and 3-phosphoglycerate. 22. Distinguish between C 3 , C 4 and CAM plants. How are the types of photosynthesis used in C4 and CAM plants good adaptations to prevent photorespiration in hot, dry climates? Be sure to define photorespiration in your response. 23. In what sense does photorespiration “undo” photosynthesis? 24. In what principle ways are the reactions of electron transport in photosynthesis similar to the electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation in cell respiration? 25. Compare and contrast mitochondria and chloroplasts. In what ways are their structures similar and different? What molecules or systems function in both types of organelles? 26. Consider plants that occupy the top, middle or ground layer of a forest, and algae that live near the surface of the ocean or in deeper water. Would you expect the same photosynthetic pigments to be found in species that live in these different habitats? Why or why not? How would you test your hypothesis? 27. Describe the roles of the xylem and phloem. 28. How do plant cells utilize proton pumps? 29. Draw diagram and describe the tonoplast, symplast and apoplast. 30. Describe how water enters the roots and the role of the endodermis. 31. Explain how water moves through the xylem. Be sure to include a discussion of transpiration. 32. What factors affect the rate of transpiration? 33. Describe how sugar and nutrients move through the phloem. 34. Describe the carbon cycle. What is the role of cell respiration & photosynthesis in the carbon cycle? 35. How could increasing atmospheric CO 2 concentrations affect plants? Past Free Response Questions 1971: The process of photosynthesis consists of two phases, the light reactions and the dark reactions.
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