1. Massey and Denton identify four theoretical explanations in the national debate on the persistence of an urban underclass of African Americans. (a) Describe these four explanations. (b) Then discuss Massey and Denton’s own explanation. (c) How does their model criticize and modify the other four explanations?
○This leads to an increase in unemployment among minorities and a reduction of “marriageable” men Massey and Denton Explanation: ●Largest few reasons were that the four aforementioned reasons were inconclusive because they failed to consider racial and residential segregation and out-migration of middle class families ●Residential segregation is an institutional tool that supports other racially discriminatory processes and binds them together so that they work in a coherent and effective system of racial subordination ●Even though out-migration is a partial reason and should be considered, it should not be a focal point because it’s a misdirection and misinterpretation of black discrimination and it deflects attention from the real issue which was the limitation of black residential options. Criticisms: ●Culture Explanation - this is a form of victim blaming. It doesn’t explain the targeting of the African American communities. It also does not explain the decline of the middle class and funneling of middle class African American families into poverty. ●Institutionalized racism - the racist practices were generally prevalent throughout history and even when policies were removed, African Americans still faced higher rates. ●Welfare disincentives - this is blaming the victim and fails to recognize that the amount given from welfare isn’t enough to survive. Additionally, having virtuous tests goes