o Most of the time, the victim does not fight back. o Can involve other types of abuse besides physical: Minimizing, denying, blaming Coercion and threats Intimidation Emotional abuse Isolation Abusive spouse causes victim to slowly lose contact with their friends and family. Using children Either using the children as leverage, or threatening the children directly Economic abuse Denying access to money Common couple violence
o Typical family conflicts that occasionally get out of control At least as likely to be enacted by women as men Occurs about once every 2 months Doesn’t typically escalate over time Unlike patriarchal terrorism, it’s not usually related to generalized control issues. ° Gender (a)symmetry in partner violence? It depends on the sample… o Community survey samples: Women are at least as likely, if not more, to use violence against men. o Shelter and police samples: Nearly all victims are women, and all perpetrators men. It depends on the type of violence… o Common couple violence: Women are at least as likely, if not more, to use violence against men. We underestimate the frequency of male victims due to the fact that men are less likely to report it. o Patriarchal terrorism: Nearly all victims are women, and all perpetrators men. Women are most endangered of being murdered by romantic partners. ° Why differentiate between types of violence? Develop better theories about causes and consequences Public policy: Knowing where and how to direct economic resources Education and therapy: Knowing what kind of information and advice to give ° Abused spouses don’t always leave. Study of 51 battered women over 2.5 years o 33% still in abusive relationship o 23% remained with abusive partner, but did not experience violence within the last year. o 43% left abusive partner; Unattached or in non-abusive relationship. Reasons people stay:
o More likely to leave when violence causes injury and is escalating o Characteristics that are related to being less likely to leave an abusive relationship: Being older Viewing violence as normative Depression, anxiety, lack of efficacy Religion Financial dependence Embarrassment o Ex: Chris Brown and Rihanna Investment Model o (+) Satisfaction level, (-) Quality of alternatives, (+) Investment size Commitment level Persistence ° Jealousy Jealousy is the unhappy combination of hurt, anger, and fear that occurs when people face the potential loss of a valued relationship to a real or imagined rival. o Can occur in friendships, siblings, etc. Universal feeling o Affects people of all ages o Witnessed in other mammals Perceptions of jealousy have changed over time.
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