1633 —Galileo was tried and imprisoned for heresy. 1637 —René Descartes’ Discourse on Method was published. 1642–1649 —Civil war raged in England. 1651 —Thomas Hobbes’ Leviathan was published. 1685–1750 —Johann Sebastian Bach became one of the greatest of the ba- roque musicians. His brilliant music was characterized by its ornate fashion. 1687 —Sir Isaac Newton’s Principia Mathematica was published. 1690 —John Locke’s Essay Concerning Human Understanding was published. 1717 —Jean-Antoine Watteau painted The Embarkation for the Island of Cythera , one of the best examples of the French rococo artistic style. 1751 —Diderot’s first volume of Encyclopedie was published. 1751 —Carolus Linnaeus was the first to use binomial nomenclature to classify genus and species of living organisms in the field of taxonomy. Study Strategy Use this chronology to begin to frame the big picture. Chro- nologies are helpful when you are trying to see how a story unfolds; in this case, the story is that of the Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment.
146 CHAPTER 5 1755 —The Lisbon earthquake killed thousands and sparked a Continen- tal debate on theology, natural science, and other great issues. 1756 —Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was born in Austria. 1759 —Voltaire published Candide . 1762 —Catherine the Great began her rule in Russia. 1765 —Jean-Honore Fragonard began painting in the rococo style. 1776 —Adam Smith’s Wealth of Nations was published. 1781 —Joseph II of Austria began policy of religious toleration.
147 THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION AND THE ENLIGHTENMENT SAMPLE ESSAY QUESTIONS Now that you have reviewed the information about the Scientific Revolu- tion and Enlightenment, take a few moments to read through the sample essay questions that follow. The questions are intended to get you think- ing about some of the ways the AP exam may test your knowledge of the Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment. To completely answer the ques- tions, you will need to draw upon the knowledge you gained during your own course of study in addition to your review with this book. 1. Analyze and discuss the ways in which the scientific method dif- fered from the medieval approach to scientific knowledge. 2. Contrast the philosophies of Bacon and Descartes. 3. Analyze and discuss the extent to which humanism had an effect on thinkers of the Scientific Revolution and of the Enlightenment. 4. “The Enlightenment presented an optimistic outlook of the future of Europe.” Assess the validity of this statement using specific ex- amples to support your answer. 5. Analyze and discuss the extent to which Central and Eastern Euro- pean rulers were affected by the intellectuals of the Enlightenment. 6. Discuss the reasons why the Catholic Church felt threatened by the Scientific Revolution and by the Enlightenment.
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