artists, journalists, students, unemployed and retired people can also have public healthcare, ( Health care in Germany: Health insurance in Germany, 2018). In comparison to having the public health insurance, private insurance is sometimes available depending on one’s income level, or if they are self-employed, (you can choose to have public if your self-employed as well). If one has private insurance, one can expect to receive a higher level of care from medical professions because the larger percentage of money that doctors/hospitals receive from private insurance holders. Some pros to having private insurance is that it can be less expensive, you can expect faster service and can have access to private hospital rooms, exclusive and multilingual doctors. However, private health insurance premiums are not based on income, but on age, health and the needed health care services, ( Health care in Germany: Health insurance in Germany, 2018). Therefore, people with preexisting health conditions and older people may actually pay more to carry private insurance in Germany. Family members are not covered, and everyone in the family unit will need to pay for separate coverage. Also, one may have to pay for procedures, treatments and medications first and then may need to send in the receipt to the private insurance company for reimbursement. The US healthcare system offers very high-quality care, short waiting times, plentiful locations, and a wide variety of options to meet patient’s needs, however this comes at a very high price that many Americans are unable to afford. Similar to Germany, the United States is separated
4 HEALTHCARE FINANCING into private and public health insurance, however unlike Germany and many other developed nations, the US healthcare system does not provide healthcare services to the entire population. In 2010, the Affordable Care Act (ACA) was passed that mandated that all Americans hold insurance, and if they did not then one would incur a tax penalty. The ACA was designed to make healthcare more affordable by creating tax subsidies and thus more accessible for low-income families by opening up Medicaid eligibility. However, as of January 1, 2019 health insurance is no longer mandated federally, but some states, (California, Massachusetts, New Jersey and Vermont) still require coverage to avoid a tax penalty, (Lake, 2020) . Currently, the US health system remains broken with numerous private and public sources as well as millions of uninsured Americans. Commercial health insurance dominates the healthcare system; however, it is very expensive which leaves public healthcare to be the only choice for lower income families however the coverage with public is very limited and is mostly reserved for people who cannot afford other types or who are above 65 years old. The United States does have a few programs such as Medicare (over the age of 65), Medicaid (low income), and The Children’s Health Insurance Program that helps over 50% of the population today, (Healthcare in the US, 2019 ). Medicare is split into four parts, all that range in the coverage provided between hospital inpatient coverage, outpatient coverage, and prescription drugs. Most
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