94 introducing tools assign responsibility before any

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9.4 Introducing Tools Assign responsibility. Before any effort can be spent on finding a tool that supports requirements management in the best possible manner, responsibilities regarding requirements engineering should already have been delineated in the organization or in the project. In addition to the parties responsible, the techniques and processes that are necessary to achieve the goal of require- ments engineering and requirements management (see chapter 8 ) must be defined. After all, even the most sophisticated requirements management tool is but an aid for the requirements engineer and requirements engi- neering. The tool follows the method. Only when every process and every technique has been defined and all involved people are able to follow these constraints can an evaluation of the available tools be performed. The following considerations have to be factored in when choosing and introducing tools for requirements engi- neering: Consider necessary resources. The choice and introduction of tools takes up resources in the organi- zation. This holds not only for personnel entrusted with the introduc- tion of a tool, but also for the future users of a tool. These efforts have to be considered during evaluation. Pilot project In practice, it has proven problematic to introduce a tool while a devel- opment project is already in progress. While additional effort for instruction of the employees can be estimated rather well, the risks that
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144 9 Tool Support are associated with introducing a new tool while a project is in progress are easily underestimated. Employee resistance or deficiencies of the tool that become apparent when the tool is deployed can influence the project negatively. Such risks can be avoided by introducing new tools in pilot projects. In this pilot project, additional resources for tool introduction, employee instruction, and process tailoring should be factored in. Evaluation A suitable tool should be determined in the context of a tool evalua- tion. When manufacturers are surveyed and critical “must-have” crite- ria are defined, potential candidates for introduction can be selected and investigated in further detail. In order to do that, a catalogue of cri- teria must be created that describes which requirements a tool for requirements engineering must fulfill. The tools that remain to be eval- uated can then be rated according to these requirements. Costs Costs for a tool usually exceed licensing cost alone. Typically, costs for employee instruction as well as potential tool customization and costs for support must be taken into account as well. Instruct employees. It is necessary for the future users of the tool to know, actively shape, and master the processes and activities that they encounter during requirements engineering. The users must be instructed with regard to processes, techniques, and the respective tool support.
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