Compare and contrast uniporter symporter and

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1.Compare and contrast uniporter, symporter, and antiporter proteins including the relative direction of molecule movement and any associated energetic needs. Which protein class would nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) be associated with? 2. In cardiac muscle, acetylcholine binds to muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs), which are G-protein coupled receptors, which elicit a signal transduction pathway that induces cardiac muscle to relax. Outline how G-protein
A BOTCHED BOTOX PARTY coupled receptors induce signal transduction pathways including relevant secondary messengers. G-protein coupled receptors, also known as GPCRs, represent a major class of drug targets ( Pubmed, 2000). GPCRs contain seven membrane spanning regions with their N-terminus on the exoplasmic face and C- terminus on the cytosolic face. These proteins are ligand specific, however, they differ in extracellular surface. GPCRs can be used in signaling pathways such light detection, odor detection, and detection of hormones. (Nogales, 2008). 3. Interpret Dr. Peterson’s statement that active transport is essential for facilitated diffusion of Na+ ions to occur in muscle cells. How are Na+/K+ pumps involved in this process? Sketch a Na+/K+ pump indicating conformational changes and energy usage steps and identify ions that are moved during the cyclic process.

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