from other authors regarding Hofstedes limitations were satisfactory and did

From other authors regarding hofstedes limitations

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from other authors regarding Hofstede’s limitations were satisfactory and did not deter other researchers from continuing to use this framework. Fifth, the use of five instead of nine cultural dimensions to explain differences in human behaviours reduces the complexity of data analysis for cross and intra-cultural research. Sixth, business researchers have applied Hofstede’s framework in dramatically increasing numbers,
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48 making it “the dominant culture paradigm” (Sivakumar & Nakata, 2001, p. 557), because “Hofstede has carefully provided both the conceptual basis and the empirical evidence for his cultural dimensions” (Sivakumar & Nakata, 2001, p. 558). With this, it is only appropriate to discuss the five cultural dimensions of Hofstede’s framework in the next section. 4.4 Hofstede’s cultural dimensions According to Hofstede and Hofstede (2005), the main cultural differences between nations/ethnic or regional groups or people lie in their values. Systematic differences exist in values about power and inequality, the relationships between the individual and the group, the emphasis placed on task achievement or relationship building, the ways of dealing with the uncertainties of life, and with respect to whether one is present, past or future oriented. They claim that the cultural dimension scores given to each country meant that statistically more people, rather than less, prefer certain states of actions over others (Hofstede & Hofstede, 2005). In other words, there are more people conforming to rather than differing from the norms of their particular culture. In order to understand how values affect people’s behaviours, Hofstede (2001) uses these five cultural dimensions, which are as follows: 1. Power distance (PD): the management of inequality between people 2. Individualism-collectivism: the relationship between individuals and collectives 3. Certainty avoidance (UA) : their stance towards ambiguity and uncertainty 4. Masculinity-femininity: achievement or relationship focussed 5. Long term (LT) and short term (ST) orientations: their stance towards time. Each of these cultural dimensions will be discussed at depth in the next five subsections beginning with the power distance cultural value. 4.4.1 Power distance Power distance (PD) is defined as “the extent to which the less powerful members of institutions and organisations within a country expect and accept that power is distributed unequally” (Hofstede & Hofstede, 2005, p. 46). In high PD societies, they accentuate power differences between the members of society, and the more powerful
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49 members (authority figures) normally assume a paternalistic role in which they are to be respected, revered and not to be questioned (Hofstede, 2001). Shane (1993b) finds that individuals from high PD cultures have lower degrees of interpersonal trust towards authority figures and they perceive authority figures as possessing significant power to reward (punish) them for their good (bad) behaviours (Popper & Sleman, 2001).
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