Grow more mitochondria leads to metabolizing more

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grow more mitochondria, leads to metabolizing more energy and building endurance lactic acid is transported to the liver where it is converted to glucose (CORI CYCLE) 6. Aerobic Energy (basic) requires oxygen slower energy- longer lasting; critical for endurance exercise performance glucose oxidation fat oxidation; rely on fat for energy less intensive occurs in the mitochondria of the cell byproduct is carbon dioxide g) Anaerobic Energy does not require oxygen fast energy; short lived; shorter duration exercise more intensive occurs in the cytosol of the cell rely on carbs for energy Chapter 10 & 11 – Vitamins 4. Fat soluble vs. Water soluble 1. List of each Fat soluble vitamins vitamin A vitamin D vitamin E vitamin K insoluble in water, dissolve in lipids small amounts needed Water soluble vitamins B-complex vitamins Vitamin C Choline functions
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blood health DNA and RNA synthesis coenzyme functions nerve and muscle function energy metabolism antioxidant 2. Risk of toxicity or deficiency levels Fat soluble vitamins Risk of toxicity if consumed in excess amounts Vitamin D deficiency insufficient sun exposure and dietary inadequacy Rickets (in children) bone malformation and muscle weakness Inadequate intake or improper absorption and utilization of vitamin D Osteomalacia (in adults) Water soluble vitamins low risk of toxicity because it is not stored in large amounts Excess generally excreted in urine Excess generally from supplements not food sources Deficiency can occur from: Inadequate intake Decreased absorption Decreased utilization in cells Increased requirements Increased breakdown Drug or alcohol problems Increased losses and excretion 3. Storage difference Fat soluble vitamins Transported in the body via the lymph , excess intake is stored in fatty tissues and the liver Absorption in small intestine Leave small intestine in chylomicrons Stored in tissue Water soluble vitamins not stored in the muscles or liver most circulate freely in the body 4. General intake recommendations (large, daily etc.) – not RDA values 5. Vitamin K 1. main function key role in blood clotting needed for synthesis of proteins for blood clotting deficiency can cause uncontrolled bleeding bone metabolism
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modifies bone proteins reduces the risk of hemorrhages in newborns 2. main food sources leafy greens Some fruits Some cheeses Some oils A significant amount of vitamin K requirement comes from the production by bacteria in the intestine 3. Coenzymes A coenzyme can best be defined as a compound that binds to a protein and is required for its activity 6. Vitamin D 1. main functions acts as a hormone helps bone growth and maintenance regulates calcium metabolism blood levels absorption excretion regulates the synthesis of certain proteins 2.
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