Were trying to fill an emotional hole in your psyche o Now we KNOW Hunger

Were trying to fill an emotional hole in your psyche

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Were trying to fill an emotional hole in your psyche o Now we KNOW: Hunger, weight, and eating are regulated by: The number of fat cells (fixed for a given person) A set of bodily mechanisms Everyone has a genetically influenced basal metabolic rate (BMR, the rate at which the body burns calories) BMR declines with ae Weight has a high heritability factor (0.4 to 0.7) Set Point Theory o Changes in metabolic rate keep people close to their genetically influence set point o May explain why dieters have a hard time keeping lost weight off, AND why thing people have trouble keeping weight on o When you lose weight – the metabolic rate decreases o When you gain weight – your metabolic rate increases Genes and Weight o Genes Influence BMR Body Shape Number of Fat cells Distribution of Fat Amount of Brown Fat Type of fat that burns excess energy for heat Usually in the back region under skin Higher amount in infants Recent Research: Cold may stimulate brown Fat production o Hormones Involved Leptin Enables the hypothalamus to regulate appetite and metabolism Reduces Hunger Stored and secreted by fat cells and the master regulator of hunger When you plan out a meal, leptin is released from fat cells and sends a signal to your brain to let you know you’re full and to stop eating Ghrelin Spurs appetite Appetite stimulator
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Released from the stomach and when elevated, it sends a signal to your brain letting you know you’re hungry and it’s time to eat Age, Gender, Blood Glucose, and leptin levels affect ghrelin levels o Factors Lessening Leptin’s Effectiveness Genetics: the ‘ob’ gene mutation can also abnormally low leptin levels leading to overeating and low metabolism Overeating over time can cause hypothalamus to become less sensitive to leptin Chronic fructose consumption (Ex: soft drinks, candy bars, sweetened foods) leads to leptin insensitivity Sleep deprivation, especially combined with stress, lowers leptin levels Sleep deprivation also increase ghrelin levels, making us hungrier (even after one night) o Environmental Influences on Weight Genetics alone can’t explain why rates of overweight and obesity are rising in recent years Rates are increasing among all: Social classes Ethnicities Ages Five Major Environmental Influences Increased abundance of inexpensive fast food and processed food Increased consumption of high-calorie sugary sodas (‘addiction’ due to stimulation of brain’s reward system) Sedentary Lifestyles Increased Portions Availability of highly varied foods Eating Disorders o Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa are the best-known eating disorder o They occur mostly among young white women, but also occur in men and in older individuals o Factors Influencing Eating Disorders: Genetic and Cultural Factors But psychological causes play a major role, such as:
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