228 such india wide efforts were not limited to

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228Such India-wide efforts were not limited to Muslims.The Arya Samaj was in some ways like the Deobandmovement: it took aim at what its members saw as su-perstition and custom among the Hindu populace andattempted to return them to a purified form of Hindupractice, based on what it argued was the most accu-rate interpretation of early Hindu scriptures. The AryaSamaj also aimed at bringing those who had convertedfrom Hinduism to Islam and Christianity into its foldthrough controversial purification ceremonies. Like thesir sayyid ahmed Khan, founder of the aligarhmovement. sir sayyid believed that indian muslimswould need to find a way to workwithin the colonial regime ratherthan contest it.Sachse High School - Sachse, TX
50USAD Social Science Resource Guide • 2015-2016Deoband movement, it created a series of Arya Samajtemples across India that are still in existence today. Itwas based in the Punjabi heartland where Christian mis-sionaries had had visible successes in converting Indiansto Christianity.229Other such movements included the Singh Sabha, es-tablished in the Punjab in 1873 and directed at Sikhs;the minority Muslim religious sect of the Ahmadiyyas;the Ramakrishna Mission; and many others. All thesemovements used modern organizational techniques,aimed to reform religious practices along clear, simple,and “purified” lines, also aimed at reforming women’spractice because it was seen as the key to the next gen-eration, relied heavily on print culture, especially pam-phlets and newspapers, drew on public fundraising, andoften if not always relied on dedicated followers to serveas missionaries in new areas. This effervesce in pan-In-dian religious activity offered individuals a choice, oftenencouraging sons to forsake the ways of their fathers.These new religious movements emphasized individualchoice and commitment as the basis of a consolidatedcommunity. They took on pan-Indian and sometimesglobal followings, and they sought to enter the pantheonof world religions through an emphasis on antiquity andscripturalism.230the FoundinG oF the indian nationalconGress, 1885It was against this backdrop of socio-religious fomentthat the premier organization of Indian nationalism wasfounded. In the late nineteenth century, Indian politi-cal and economic thinkers began to advance thedrainof wealth theory.This theory held that were it not forcolonialism, Indian surpluses would have been investedin India, rather than Britain or its older holdings. Sim-ply put, the colonial state did not represent Indian inter-ests. The Indian nationalists who advanced this theorydid not call for a wholesale rejection of colonialism orexpulsion of the British; rather, they called for reforms.They argued that the colonial state should revise its fiscalpolicies to nurture infant Indian industries that mightcompete with the imported items from Britain.

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