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F despite dreams of paper free societies western

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F.Despite dreams of paper-free societies, western cultures still use enormous quantities ofpaper, often in ways that it would be inconceivable to use papyrus for. As a papersubstitute, the role of the papyrus sedge in western cultures has been superseded;papyrus is little more than a niche product for the tourist market. What makes papyrusnoteworthy for western societies nowadays is its use as the surface upon which ourancient ancestors recorded their lives, their art and their science. In the words of the
347IELTSMaterial.comancient Roman philosopher Pliny, the Elder, it is 'the material on which the immortalityof human beings depends'.From Stephen Harris, What have Plants Ever Done for Us?, Bodleian Library Publishing2015 and reprinted by kind permission of Bodleian Library Publishing.Questions 33 -37Instructions to followChoose the correct letter, A, B, C or D.Write the correct letter in boxes33-37on your answer sheet.What was the problem with using animal skins and wood strips for writing on?They did not last for a long time.They were not easy to store.They were insufficiently flexible.They could be destroyed by fire.Why did papyrus manufacturers hammer the papyrus?to remove water from the pith stripsto join the layers of pith strips togetherto allow the pith strips to be easily cutto position the layers of pith strips at the correct angle
348IELTSMaterial.comWhen referring to burning libraries and books, the writer is suggesting thatinformation can be used for harm as well as for good.new ways must be found to ensure information is not lost.cultural knowledge depends on more than written texts.those in power may Wish to keep others in ignorance.The writer refers to Thor Heyerdahl to illustrate the point thatPapyrus could be used as food on long sea voyages.The ancient Egyptians already had advanced navigation skills.Papyrus could be used to build boat s for long sea journeys.The ancient Egyptians knew of the environmental benefits of papyrus.What does the writer conclude about papyrus today?It is better for the environment than using paper.Its significance is restricted to its role in the past.It is still the best writing surface for some purposes.More efforts need to be made to ensure it stays in use.
349IELTSMaterial.comQuestions 38-40Instructions to followComplete the summary below.ChooseONE WORD ONLYfrom the text for each answer.Write your answers in boxes38-40on your answer sheet.How papyrus documents have survivedPapyrus is rich in cellulose, and some conditions will be destroyed by fungal growths or beconsumed by………………. However, it can survive for long periods in an environment that isdry. It has been found in a 5,000-year-old………………….. in Egypt, and Herculaneum manypapyrus documents were preserved following a vast……………………. in 79 CE. in the town ofOxyrhynchus, unwanted administrative documents were left on rubbish dumps which werecovered with sand, preserving them for many years.
350IELTSMaterial.comAnswer KeyReading Test 1Section 1Section 2Section 3QuestionAnswerQuestionAnswerQuestionAnswer1E15Photo28Rules2C16Screens29Fairness3B17Productivity30Submissive4D18Mobile31Biting5

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