A ipa41 1 l7 15 o l c k 5 0 o a o l t 03 o l 4db 4 1

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:a i.p.A.41/)-!1- L715-- o /Lc* k5.0- o / a.!-o/L)..t,03o /--L).4.db ---- 414-u-?)--dSi4;-?-333'.)-‘11' While possible, it is less common that bothix.41andIare definite:Such as,4l.1211:1 o.:ub64".311 4.njJ 61L,sb di.w)41oa,This school is the only school in this area.These sentences tend to beL,emphatic in some way, and, in this example, the pronountaacts to separate and highlight both1a.....„1.1andclA
a.s asoict.These are old houses.This is a large city.AThis is an Italian restaurant..L)1.6.2111.2)J1.!/)IJ4I oftt,this beautiful cityjUn.2>IIct..=12.1.111a,this Italian restaurantthese old houses4111'11oasbLesson 50A03.0.V.A0.4ja.1L„.o33C.)* 1.9.1....4Lcbj..o.c.j3.,,2J1 4 .1 •(c.„.4.)..4)vaisidcct...,A AThis exercise is available online only.oak./The demonstratives I. and ()1st. are used both in sentences, for example "This is an easytest," and in definite noun phrases, for example, "this test." What differentiates these twoconstructions? Compare the phrases in A and B:B=Iri'`\
This big city is very beautiful..1,..L?- - .4.1.,...o.?- 8_,?..CJIal2.3.1,1 0,1.,:bThis Italian restaurant is the best!1::..sr..6..0 ,:)..,...,-1tp.1ay.>11st,..2.4.1,1 111These old houses are historic....,Ltyil3.4i..sa.ii11 cl.)5.,J Ioak4Lt_li? bsz.6.,3 13Lt.419-813,0 4lsk3‘ ';:..-11 (.:%1..!-?- J12-0-81You can see that section A contains sentences, whereas section B contains phrases. Thisdistinction is made grammatically by the use of JI: The definite phrases in B refer to definite,specific entities, and so the nouns and adjectives must be definite. In the sentences in sectionA, the noun-adjective phrases function asii...11, and are indefinite. We can, of course, usedefinite noun-adjective phrases in sentences by adding aj!..-, which is usually indefinite:Demonstrative Pronouns in Spoken ArabicThe following words are commonly used demonstratives in ,...calland 4)-4.1,12:•--'(also spelled03) 133La) , 131A)1,1.0z.434ist. c43Lcb10,A-11)You have heard and used these demonstrative pronouns in sentences like the followingIn Levantine Arabic there is an additional short form of the demonstrative pronoun thatis used in definite noun phrases:tea. This pronoun has no gender and is pronounced as ifattached to the definite noun it modifies:these housesci*,9,,,....Ilibthis streettiLiJlrbthis region" .4.sihd,LS'There exist other variant forms in both regions but they are all related to these basic forms.\ • •
Lesson 5 LYJ'(L.a..42.11jiLi5154...?.)3 :1 •J-4-31.The old(p.S)man is tired.2.Is this test hard?3.This semester is long!4.This is an easy class!5.This is a beautiful letter.6.This is a cold winter!7.Cairo is a very large city.8.The new library is very cold.9.Is your new friend a student here?10.The short woman is Saudi and the tall one is Kuwaiti.11.They remember their difficult childhood.12.Ilive on(j)this wide street, and overcrowding is a problem.

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classical arabic, Modern Standard Arabic, Varieties of Arabic, Companion Website, Levantine

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