Separate educational facilities were inherently

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separate educational facilities were inherently unequal. Chief Justice Earl Warren wrote the opinion, handed down onMay 17, 1954, in which a unanimous Court declared that “in the field of public education the doctrine of ‘separate butequal’ has no place.”Massive ResistanceThe policy declared by U.S. Senator Harry F. Byrd, Sr. on February 24, 1956 to unite other white politicians andleaders in Virginia in a campaign of new state laws and policies to prevent public school desegregation after theBrown v. Board of Education Supreme Court decision in 1954.Rosa ParksUnited States civil rights leader who refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white man in Montgomery (Alabama)and so triggered the national civil rights movement (born in 1913). A successful year-long boycott protestingsegregation on city buses; led by the Reverend Martin Luther King.Martin Luther King JrU.S. Baptist minister and civil rights leader. A noted orator, he opposed discrimination against blacks by organizingnonviolent resistance and peaceful mass demonstrations. He was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee. He wonNobel Peace Prize in 1964. He became a celebrated leader by organizing Montgomery Bus boycott.Southern Christian Leadership ConferenceSouthern Christian Leadership Conference, founded by MLK, which taught that civil rights could be achieved throughnonviolent protests. The Southern Christian Leadership Conference. It was a civil rights movement organization. Itsfirst president was Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. It started as a organization that stressed nonviolent rebellion to stop thesegregation of buses in the south.Montgomery Bus BoycottAfter Rosa Parks is arrested, MLK rallies the black community to do bus boycott. This seriously hurt the buscompanies. This lasted more than a year, and ended in '56 when the SC declared segregated buses unconstitutional.It was a turning point in the life of MLK and fight against segregation.Civil Right Act of 1957Eisenhower passed this bill to establish a permanent commission on civil rights with investigative powers but it didnot guarantee a ballot for blacks. It was the first civil-rights bill to be enacted after Reconstruction which was
supported by most non-southern whites. Yet by 1959 the Civil Rights Act had not added a single southern black tothe voting rolls. Lyndon B Johnson further watered it down before its passage.Little Rock 91957 - Governor Faubus sent the Arkansas National Guard to prevent nine Black students from entering Little RockCentral High School. Eisenhower sent in U.S. paratroopers to ensure the students could attend class. Eisenhowerordered 1,000 paratroopers to Little Rock to protect the black students, and he placed the national guard on federalservice. The soldiers stayed through the school year.Orval FaubusThe Governor who opposed the integration of Central High, Sent the Little Rock National Guard to keep them out.Then gave them no protection at all., He is best known for his 1957 stand against the desegregation of Little Rockpublic schools during the Little Rock Crisis, in which he defied the United States Supreme Court by ordering the

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Term
Fall
Professor
Roux
Tags
US History, Cold War, President Dwight D Eisenhower

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