On-site labour productivity of New Zealand construction industry.pdf

The objectives to be achieved the resources employed

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The objectives to be achieved, the resources employed, the measures adopted and the benchmarks used for comparison give rise to different definitions of or perspectives on productivity. The common threads in all definitions or contextual interpretations of productivity relate to: Effectiveness: i.e. how effective is the leveraging of the resources to achieve the set objectives? E.g. a system can be adjudged productive in effectiveness context, if the set objectives are achieved through effective resource leverage; Efficiency: i.e. in achieving the set objectives, how efficient was the utilization of the scarce resources in the implementation process? Overall, an operational definition of productivity that fits well with the various approaches to defining the concept - which draws upon the output-input paradigm - is „the amount or quantity of output of a process per unit of resource input‟. This aligns with similar definitions by a number of authors (Tran and Tookey, 2011; Page, 2010; Enshassi, et al, 2007). Equation 1 summarises the key features embodied in this definition. (1) Where : Output could be in units or dollar value of product or service, revenue generated or value added; resource input could be in units or dollar value relating to manpower (i.e. man- hour), machinery (i.e. machine hour), materials (i.e. quantity), or money (i.e. dollar value). The nature of the resource input or a combination of inputs also informs the type of productivity and the measures used to evaluate it as shown in Equation 1. The two most common types of productivity are the single-factor and multi-factor productivity; the former considers only one of the resource inputs as the denominator to Equation 1, while the latter considers all resource inputs for a more holistic perspective.
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