Q What happens if you have high CO2 in the blood or lungs there will be

Q what happens if you have high co2 in the blood or

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COPD can develop with intense or prolonged exposure to: o Dusts, vapours, irritants, or fumes *wear mask around inhalants o High levels of air pollution o Fumes from indoor heating or cooking with fossil fuels COPD – Infection Recurring infections impair normal defense mechanisms Risk factor for COPD Intensify pathological destruction of lung tissue *ex. Pneumonia COPD – Heredity -Antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency o Genetic risk factor for COPD o Accounts for 3% of COPD *For genetic testing, you need genetic counselling Pt. has risk factors You need to look at what the pt. will do with that result (ex. Might be worried about it all the time) COPD – Aging Some degree of emphysema is common because of physiological changes of aging lung tissue. Img: Public Health Agency of Canada, 2007 (Does not include influenza, pneumonia, bronchiolitis, RDS) COPD - Clinical Manifestations *important (NEED TO KNOW) Develops slowly Diagnosis is considered with: o Cough o Sputum production o Dyspnea (shortness of breath) *due to damaged lungs o Exposure to risk factors *note: Waking up consistently in the morning with thick sputum + persistent cough and then the shortness of breath Dyspnea usually prompts medical attention o Occurs with exertion in early stages o Present at rest with advanced disease Causes chest breathing o Use of accessory and intercostal muscles
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o Inefficient *Q. Why is coughing prominent in the morning? A: b/c they’ve been laying down (as the day goes on, lose up and expel it) Characteristically underweight with adequate caloric intake Chronic fatigue *Vicious cycle (less activities weaker muscles etc…); Pt may show up malnourished Physical examination findings o Prolonged expiratory phase Q. why do we have prolonged expiratory phase? (instead of 1 to 2) A: air is trapped (trying to get all the air out) o Wheezes o Decreased breath sounds Q. Why dec. breath sounds? A: b/c of secretions, inflammations, mucus production o ↑ Anterior-posterior diameter Q. Why ↑ Anterior-posterior diameter? A: air trapping=barrel chest Skin discoloration (Bluish-red) CB vs Emphysema Chronic Bronchitis Emphysema Intermittent dyspnea *(coughing gets worse at times) – laying down is worse unlike emphysema where they have it at all times Symptoms onset >35 yrs Copious purulent sputum *b/c we know it increases mucus production Stocky, obese Chest AP diameter normal Chest Percussion dull/normal Hematocrit elevated *Q. Why is hematocrit elevated ?
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