[B._Beckhoff,_et_al.]_Handbook_of_Practical_X-Ray_(b-ok.org).pdf

Benninghoff l von czarnowski d denkhaus e lemke k

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928. Benninghoff L, von Czarnowski D, Denkhaus E, Lemke K, Analysis of human tissues by total reflection X-ray fluorescence. Application of chemometrics for diagnostic cancer recognition. Spectrochim Acta Part B 52 , 1039–1046 (1997) 929. Majcen N, Rius FX, Zupan J, Linear and non-linear multivariate analysis in the quality control of industrial titanium dioxide white pigment. Anal Chim Acta 348 , 87–100 (1997) 930. Molt K, Schramm R, Application of factor analysis in EDXRF. Fresenius J Anal Chem 359 , 61–66 (1997) 931. Scan for Windows Users Manual, Version 1.1. Minitab, State College, PA (1995) 932. Friedman JH, Regularized discriminant analysis. J Am Stat Assoc 84 , 165–175 (1989) 933. Frank IE, Friedman JH Classification: oldtimers and newcomers. J Chemom 33 , 463–475 (1989) 934. Wu W, Mallet Y, Walczak B, Penninckx W, Massart DL, Heuerding S, Erni F, Comparison of regularized discriminant analysis, linear discriminant analysis and quadratic discriminant analysis, applied to NIR data. Anal Chim Acta 329 , 257–265 (1996) 935. Baldovin A, Wen W, Massart DL, Turello A, Regularized discriminant analysis RDA—Modelling for the binary discrimination between pollution types. Chemom Intell Lab Syst 381 , 25 (1997) 936. Kessler T, Hoffmann P, Greve T, Ortner HM Optimization of the identification of chemical compounds by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. X-Ray Spectrom 31 , 383–390 (2002) 937. Ernst T, Bartels M, Ohm M, Beckenkamp K, Automatische Identit¨atspr¨ufung von Feststoffen mit der energiedispersiven R¨ontgenfluoreszenzanalyse. GIT-Labor-Fachz 47 , 392–396 (2003) 938. Gigante GE, Pedraza LJ, Sciuti S, Analysis of metal alloys by Rayleigh to Compton ratios and X-ray fluorescence peaks in the 50 to 122 keV energy range. Nucl Instr Meth B12 , 229–234 (1985)
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8 Appendix 8.1 X-Ray Safety and Protection P. Ambrosi 8.1.1 Introduction X-rays are photons of sufficient energy to ionise atoms or molecules. Such radiation is called ionising radiation. Ionisation is a process to (partially) sep- arate charges, e.g., by separating an electron. The atoms or molecules can be gaseous (e.g., air), liquid (e.g., water), solid (e.g., semiconductors) or a mix- ture of these (e.g., tissue in the human body). For air, the required energy to produce one ionisation, the ionisation energy, is about 34 eV. Therefore, visible light is not an ionising radiation, because its energy is about 2.5 eV per pho- ton. In liquids and solids the ionisation energy is lower. Photons are uncharged particles which have long pathways through matter without energy deposition and in each energy deposition process they lose large amounts of energy. The main part of this energy is converted into kinetic energy of secondary particles, mainly electrons. These electrons will lose their energy by secondary ionisation processes very close to their location of generation. These processes will occur with defined probability, resulting in an exponential attenuation law. Such radiation is called indirect ionising radiation. The opposite is direct ionising radiation, e.g., electrons, which have short pathways from one energy deposi- tion to the other and in each of the frequent energy deposition processes they lose small but constant amounts of energy. These “quasi” continuous energy
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