Brain Imaging changes in brain activity in certain areas during

Brain imaging changes in brain activity in certain

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Brain Imaging: changes in brain activity in certain areas during hypnosis—associated with reduced conflict between tasks Drugs - Psychoactive Drug: a drug that influences functioning of the brain, hence our feelings, thoughts, perceptions, behavior and experience. Classes of Drugs 1. Stimulants: increases activity in the central nervous system Positive: elation, energy, excitement Negative: anxiety, paranoia, aggression Hallucinations, heart failure, convulsions Ex. Cocaine, amphetamines, nicotine and caffeine, ecstasy (MDMA- hard to categories) 2. Depressants: slows down activity in the central nervous system Positive: reduces anxiety, relaxation, calmness, euphoria Negative: insensitivity to pain, damaging to organs (long term), lower mood, drowsiness, interferes with cognitive functions, overdose Ex. Alcohol, tranquilizers, barbiturates (for assisted suicide in animals), many inhalants 3. Opiates: used for pain relief (analgesia) Positive: pain relief, euphoria, decrease anxiety Negative: drowsiness, dependency/addictive, overdose, depress vital functions (if in excess), constipation From the opium poppy seed (milk inside) Ex. Morphine, opium, heroin, oxycodone, fentanyl 4. Psychedelic Drugs: distorts perception of consciousness; profound distortion in sensory and perceptual experience, including hallucinations (especially visual) Positive: experience alteration of consciousness, ‘trip’, exhilaration, interesting experiences, insight Negative: ‘trip’, psychosis, paranoia, panic Also known as hallucinogens Ex. Psilocybin mushrooms, LSD, peyote cactus
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5. Cannabis: Positive: many of the same effects as other classes of drugs Negative: anxiety, paranoia, impaired concentration and memory Cannot die by overdose Ex. Sativa (more stimulating), marijuana, hashish, cannabis oil, drinkables and edibles How Drugs Interfere with Neurotransmitters - Agonist: mimics the action of a neurotransmitter - Antagonist: Inhibits the action of a neurotransmitter, often by blocking receptor sites - Can also prevent reuptake (agonistic effect) or deactivation (antagonistic effect), so that more of the neurotransmitter stays in the synaptic cleft longer Ex. Cocaine blocks the reuptake of dopamine; chronic use of cocaine can create serious damage in receptors Factors that Affect how a Drug Influences a Person 1. Environmental setting 2. Body Weight 3. Metabolism 4. Physical tolerance 5. State of emotional arousal 6. Previous experience with drug 7. Expectations about drug effects 8. Societal attitudes and ideas about the drug Current Medical Applications - Cocaine- toothaches, lethargy - Heroin- cough suppressant, diarrhea - Cannabis- nausea - LSD- mood disorders - Tranquilizers- insomnia - Tobacco- not being cool enough ;) 18-10-16 Lecture 10 Chapter 6: Sensation and Perception Sensation - Occurs in our sensory organs (skin, eyes, ears, mouth, etc.) - Occurs when we detect the physical energy emitted or reflected by physical objects - Without sensations, we cannot have perception Sense Location of Sense Organ Energy Transduced Vision/Sight
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