400 500 killed 200000 people safe but displaced for

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~400-500 killed; ~200,000 people safe but displaced for more than 10 years.
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N. Tungol Pyroclastic flows (pink), lahars (green), and ashfall (entire area)
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>650 ft of erosion in Marella Valley, 1991-1994 By 2001, ~60% of the 1991 pyroclastics on Pinatubo slopes were already eroded away, mostly by “LAHARS”
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Lahars upper slopes lower slopes
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An old silt-trapping dam near the head of alluvial fan, Pasig- Potrero river, buried by toe of pyroclastic flow deposit, 6/91 Effects of lahars on mid-slopes:
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“Hanging sabo,” 11/92, now 100 ft above river channel!
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Sabo dam buried again by later lahars, 9/94
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Effects of lahars on more distant alluvial fan, town of Bamban, Tarlac, ~19 miles from summit: Initial scouring, then all deposition thereafter
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Early 1994, Bacolor was recovering from 1991-92 lahars By late 1994, overwhelmed again by huge new lahars after Pasig-Potrero River “captured” headwaters of the Sacobia River Bacolor, distal alluvial fan, 22 miles from summit
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Lahar impacts, minus and plus ~400 deaths, ~200,000 semi-permanently displaced into relocation centers, new towns 10 years of lahars! Massive disruption of transportation, agriculture Major supply of lightweight sand/gravel Substantial govt. expenditures on recovery Community disruption and reunification
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“Lahars from Mt Rainier constitute the greatest volcano hazard in the Cascade range” USGS Special report 98-428
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  • Spring '09
  • Bergantz
  • Volcanoes, Volcano, Nevado del Ruiz, Pyroclastic flow, Lahars, Armero- Nevado del Ruiz, Armero- Nevado del

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