As similar techniques are applied in different areas say the use of searchable

As similar techniques are applied in different areas

This preview shows page 122 - 124 out of 272 pages.

As similar techniques are applied in different areas – say, the use of searchable databases in policing and marketing surveillance – so theoretical resources from one area may be borrowed in another. As with information scientists, colleagues in law and policy studies will also play a role in surveillance studies, not least because the shift beyond “privacy” also has implications for accountability in legal and organizational contexts. Discussions of surveillance are necessary in fighting the inevitable Orwellian nightmare Monahan 2010 (torin, surveillance as governance: social inequality and the pursuit of democratic surveillance. In surveillance and democracy, 91- 110, , LB) It is now widely recognized that the emergence of information systems and shifts in modes of capital accumulation, especially since the 1970s, have brought about an increasingly globalized information or network society (Harvey, 1990; Castells, 1996; Hardt and Negri, 2000). Information and communication technologies now mediate and govern most domains of life, especially in industrialized countries . What is seldom noted, however, is that information societies are perforce surveillance societies (Giddens, 1990; Lyon, 2001). The orientation of information systems is toward data creation, collection, and analysis for the purposes of intervention and control. Surveillance societies are deeply rooted in organizations and populations, which is Itself a scientific management of the Enlightenment belief scientific and technological power Itera of progress (Porter 1995). The matt of Big Brother, or state-run surveillance operations, however, falls to account for the almost complete integration of information systems, and therefore surveillance functions . David Lyon elucidates: surveillance societies are such in the sense that surveillance is pervasive in every sector of societal life, courtesy of an integrated information infrastructure . Far from state surveillance being predominate, surveillance activities may now be found in work situations and consumer contexts as well .. .. Moreover, surveillance data is networked between these different sectors, to create degrees of integration of surveillance systems undreamed of in the worst Orwellian nightmare, but with actual social effects that are far more ambiguous and complex . (Lyon, 2001:34-35) Concern for democracy, therefore, must attend to the state but also extend beyond it to question all the modes of information-facilitated control it must look to the
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extreme and the mundane, from state spying programs to targeted consumer marketing, for instance. Whereas the previous section of this paper stressed non- democratic trends in relation to technologies more generally, this section concentrates on surveillance systems in particular, with specific attention paid to the types of control they exercise and enable. As a starting point, I define surveillance systems as those that enable control of people through
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