He saw Liu as China’s Khrushchev who would dismantle his legacy after he died At the beginning of the CR, Liu was purged from CCP leadership as a “capitalist roader.” This was a commonly used term for people who were not really loyal to the party and wanted China to be more like the West o He is publicly denounced, imprisoned and dies in prison. o His family is also ruined o He was only rehabilitated after the fall of the Gang of Four Lin Biao o Lin Biao had taken over the Defence Ministry after Peng Dheuai’s pruge at the Lushan Conference o He politicizes the PLA (thereby militarizing Chinese society) and pushes the Mao Cult o After Liu Shaoqi, Lin (who was very loyal to Mao during the CR) was promoted to successor o As explained before, though, Lin became impatient and a failed coup that he planned led him to flee He died in a suspicious plane crash o Lin’s fate shook the Chinese citizenry who had come to see him as a national leader only second to Mao The Fall of the Gang of Four o During the CR, Jiang Qing (Mao’s wife) led three radical individuals as the Gang of Four o The Gang was the de facto power center during the Revolution (Mao was very old by this time) o They were arrested after the death of Mao in 1976 and marked the official end of the Cultural Revolution The Rise, Fall, Rise, Fall, Rise of Deng Xiaoping o Important CCP leader during pre-1949 (Long March veteran) o Purged in 1966 as a capitalist roader for post-GLF policies
o Returns in early 70s with help from Zhou Enlai o After Zhou’s death, he is denounced again by the Gang of Four o Returns after Mao’s death and consolidates power to become the architect of China’s reforms. o Very resilient individual which added to his credibility as a reformer Cultural Revolution was unprecedented even in the history of dictatorships How do you explain the origins and the radical extent of the Revolution? Two schools of argument o Top-down: Mao as the Cause of the Cultural Revolution An all-powerful supreme leader mobilized people to do horrible things Begins with factional elite warfare (Mao camp vs. Others who are more moderate like Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping) Therefore, CR began as a power struggle Chinese Culture: Confucian culture is conducive to charismatic rule and the “authoritarian personality” Therefore, when Mao became “crazy,” people went “crazy” as well Problems of this school of argument: Mao is a necessary but insufficient condition Fair to say that without Mao, there probably would not have happened However, by the time of the CR, Mao was old and weak. How did this Cultural Revolution persist and propagate itself? o Bottom-up: Societal Divisions existing prior to CR as explanation How were these divisions created? During land reforms, people were labeled “capitalists” or “landlords.” These labels became entrenched and different social/class groups came into conflict Other divisions include: o Contract (Migrant) Workers vs. Permanent Workers o Lower level cadres vs. upper level cadres (attacks by bureaucrats on other bureaucrats)
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