Movement between 1974 and 1993 basic theory

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Movement between 1974 and 1993.
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Basic Theory Earthquakes (seismic slip) – Friction between rocks generates elastic deformation and builds up energy before failure – When the stress exceeds the friction resistance (or rupture strength of the rock), a sudden movement occurs to release the stress (as energy) Elastic Rebound : rocks snap back elastically to their previous dimensions after the sudden displacement and associated stress release
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Earthquake Cycle
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Vertical or Horizontal displacement may occur
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Earthquake Location • Actual site of the first movement along a fault plane is the focus (or hypocenter) • Actual point on the earth’s surface directly above the focus is the epicenter • Seismic and Surface Waves are generated as the energy is released
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Energy of Earthquakes Energy from an earthquake travels through the earth – Density of rock will affect the travel time for waves – Waves move fast through high density rocks – Waves move slow through low density rocks Seismograph detects ground movement and can be useful in calculating the location of an epicenter and magnitude – Records arrival of different seismic waves – Interval of time between the first arrivals of P waves and S waves is a function of distance to the epicenter – Requires at least 3 seismographs to locate an earthquake
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Earthquake Locations Generally occur in linear belts – Intraplate earthquakes also occur and quite severe Linear belts correspond to plate boundaries
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