E waste Governance Some specific regulations were developed or adopted during

E waste governance some specific regulations were

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however, it had the highest volume of e-waste per inhabitant (17,3kg). E-waste Governance Some specific regulations were developed or adopted during the 1980s and 1990s, aiming to reduce the negative environmental impact of the non- appropriate treatment and disposal of WEEE around the world, including the illegal traffic of e-waste. The principal international regulations applied to e- waste are Basel Convention, Vienna Convention and Montreal Protocol, Stockholm Convention, Rotterdam Convention and Minamata Convention. The Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal was signed in March 1989 and entered into force in May 1992. It aims to regulate the transboundary management of hazardous wastes, storage, transportation, treatment and final disposal of hazardous wastes to protect the environment and human health from the harm caused by improper management of these wastes. In 1995 and 1997, two amendments to the Convention were approved, definitively prohibiting the export of any waste for disposal (1995) or recycling (1997) by the OECD, European Community and Liechtenstein countries. There are currently 53 signatories and 187 parties at the Basel Convention. Also, a technical guidance
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CSR approach on e-waste BL7001 CSR & Environmental Law 7 on transboundary movements of electrical and electronic waste and used electrical and electronic equipment was adopted in May 2015. According to Ambrosi (2018), the main objective of this technical guidance is to support on how to identify, classify and define the EEE as waste or non-waste. The Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer was signed in March 1985. It set out several principles related to the willingness of the international community to promote ozone protection mechanisms, defining general obligations for governments to take appropriate legal and administrative measures to prevent possible impacts that could be caused by the phenomenon of depletion of the ozone layer. Currently, it has 45 signatories and 116 parties. The Montreal Protocol on Ozone Depleting Substances, adopted in 1987 and entered into force in January 1989, imposed specific obligations, primarily related to the progressive reduction in the production and consumption of Ozone Depleting Substances until its complete elimination. It is currently the only multilateral environmental agreement to be universally adopted; 197 states have committed to protecting the ozone layer. As stated by Ambrosi (2018), regarding the e-waste, “the Montreal Protocol is an important instrument because it covers ozone-depleting substances present in refrigerators, freezers and other refrigeration equipment and provides for management and disposal, as well as for reducing production”. The Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants was adopted in May 2001 and entered into force in May 2004. The Stockholm Convention, Article 1 (“Objective”), defines the objective of the Convention as “to protect human health and the environment from persistent organic pollutants”. Currently, it has a total of 152 signatories and 184 parties. Regarding the e-
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