rule endured there for almost 800 years•Arab music thrived in Cordoba, Seville, Granada, and other cities; based on 7-9th century court music from Damascus and Baghdad but assumed Andalusian character•Spain reconquered by Christians in 9thcentury, so gradual retreat of Muslims to North Africa in three migrations:10-12thcenturies—from Seville to Tunis (Tunisia); 12thcentury—from Cordoba to Tlemcen (Algeria) and Valencia to Fez (Morocco); 15thcentury—from Granada to Fez and Tetuan (Morocco)•Andalusian music coming from these different places in different periods developed into three major schools: Moroccan, Algerian, and Tunisian. •These new centers were not as supportive of the arts, so much of the original music has been lost but musicians consider themselves part of a continuing tradition from Andalusia•From 1960s (post-independence) efforts to revive old traditions in Algeria and Tunisia to stimulate interest in younger generation, so schools of music in the region offer instruction in these traditions, often as an oral method of transmissionTradition Described•Original Andalusian repertory consisted of twenty four nubat(nubasingular, means a “suite” of music) each based on one of 24 modes (scales). Moroccan nuba is a suite of SONGS in five movements, each in one of five rhythmic modes always performed in a set order. Each vocal movement comes after an instrumental prelude. The Algerian nuba consistes of 9 alternating INSTRUMENTAL and VOCAL movements, in Tunisia there are 10. Basically the music is MONOPHONIC (i.e., only one voice) with occasional DRONE (sustained pitch plays under the monophony•Music from oral tradition but poetic texts from literary sources. Three main poetic forms: qasida (solo improvisation of early Near East), muwashshah (court poetry), and zajal (popular form developed in Spain with nuba)•Texts are romantic praising love, nature, and earthly pleasures, some include praise of Prophet Mohammed and divine love. As many as forty poems can be used in a single nuba. Rarely do you hear a complete nuba performed.Tradition’s Originator: Ziryab, •ninth century music, theorist, fashion designer from Baghdad, trained in Arab and Persian traditions•brought to el-Andalus performance and music-theoretical expertise and a system of music therapy called “tree of modes” or “tree of temperaments”•based on Arab medical concepts of the time, Ziryab presented system as having come through divine revelation•Ziryab’s system associated specific musical modes with particular body organs 3
(spleen, heart, liver, brain) with human moods (anger, calm, joy, sadness). These were then connected to natural elements (air, fire, water, earth), colors (red, yellow, white, black) and conditions (heat, cold, humidity, dryness).
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- Spring '12
- Music, Algeria, Rai, modern rai