gastritis (type A chronic gastritis) in which gastric atrophy results from destruction of parietal and zymogenic cells (2017a). Autoantibodies are present that fight against H + -K + ATPase, which is the major protein constituent of parietal cell membranes (2017a). Autoantibodies against IF prevent the formation of the B 12 -IF complex and transportation of vitamin B 12 (2017a). Older people also are at higher risk for developing pernicious anemia due to a lack of stomach acid and intrinsic factor, which prevents the small intestine from absorbing vitamin B12. (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, n.d.) As people grow older, they tend to make less stomach acid (n.d.). Genetic factors contributing to the increased risk of PA are having a family history of the condition and having an autoimmune disorder that involves the endocrine glands, such as Addison's disease, type 1 diabetes, Graves' disease, or vitiligo (n.d.). Surgeries that remove part or all of the stomach and part or all of the small intestine affect the body’s
ability to absorb vitamin B 12 (n.d.). Medications, such as antibiotics and certain seizure medications, may prevent the body from properly absorbing vitamin B 12 (n.d.). References Alhossain A. Khalafallah, & Dennis, A. (2012). Iron deficiency anaemia in pregnancy and postpartum: Pathophysiology and effect of oral versus intravenous iron therapy. Journal of Pregnancy, 2012 . doi: 10.1155/2012/630519 Cadet, M. (2018). Iron deficiency anemia: A clinical case study. MEDSURG Nursing , 27 (2), 108–120. Retrieved from Huether, S. & McCance, K. (2017a). Understanding Pathophysiology (6th ed.). St. Louis, Missouri: Elsevier Lopez, A., Cacoub, P., Macdougall, I., & Peyrin-Biroulet, L. (2016). Seminar: Iron deficiency anaemia . The Lancet, 387 , 907–916. Retrieved from - org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org Peate, I. & Jones, N. (2014). Pathophysiology series 1: Iron deficiency anaemia. British Journal of Healthcare Pathophysiology Assistants, 08 (04), 164-169. Retrieved from Toh, B. (2017b). and laboratory diagnosis of pernicious anemia. Immunological Research, 65 , 326-330. doi:10.1007/s12026-016-8841-7 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (n.d.). Pernicious anemia. Retrieved from
Heather Johnson iron deficiency anemia and chronic inflammation anemia COLLAPSE Nurs 6501 Week 7, Main Post “Anemia is the reduction of the total number of erythrocytes in the circulating blood or a decrease in the quality or quantity of hemoglobin” (Huether & McCance, 2017). Due to the decreased number of erythrocytes, there is a reduction in the oxygen in the blood which can result in tissue hypoxia. A decreased number of red blood cells causes the blood to be thinner causing the cardiovascular system to have higher stroke volumes and increased heart rates. Over time this can lead to cardiac dilation and heart valve insufficiency (Huether & McCance, 2017).
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