Raw meant is difficult to chew. Cooking meat denatures the protein, making it easier to chew.
NUCLEIC ACIDSNUCLEIC ACIDSOrganisms store information about the structure of their proteinsin macromolecules called NUCLEIC ACIDS.Nucleic acids are used by all organisms to store hereditary informationthat determines structural and functional characteristics.
NUCLEIC ACIDSNUCLEIC ACIDS•There are TWO types of nucleic acidsin living organisms:»DNA(deoxyribonucleic acid) – the instructions for creating an organism are stored in digital code along coiled chains of DNA»RNA(ribonucleic acid) – reads the information in DNA and transports it to the protein-building apparatus of the cellDNAand RNAis found in the nucleus of cells!!!!
NUCLEIC ACIDSNUCLEIC ACIDSNucleic Acids are made up of sub-units called NUCLEOTIDESNUCLEOTIDES. Nucleic acids are nucleotide polymers.Each nucleotidenucleotideis made up of:A 5 carbon sugara phosphate groupa nitrogenous baseIn a NUCLEIC ACID CHAIN, the phosphate group of one nucleotide is linked to the sugar of another nucleotide.
NUCLEIC ACIDSNUCLEIC ACIDS•DNAcontains the sugar DEOXYRIBOSEwhereas RNAcontains the sugar RIBOSE.The only difference between these two sugars is the lack of oxygen at carbon 2 in deoxyribose – this accounts for its name.
NUCLEIC ACIDSNUCLEIC ACIDS•There are 4 types of nitrogenous basesin DNA:»Adenine (A)»Guanine (G)»Thymine (T)»Cytosine (C)
NUCLEIC ACIDSNUCLEIC ACIDSPurines have a double-ringed structure.Pyrimidines have a single-ringed structure.
NUCLEIC ACIDSNUCLEIC ACIDS•DNA is made up of TWO strands of nucleic acidsThe TWO strands of nucleic acidsare wound around each other like a winding staircase – called a DOUBLE HELIXThe double helix structure causes the nitrogenous bases to be facing each otherThe nitrogenous bases form hydrogen bonds between each other.
NUCLEIC ACIDSNUCLEIC ACIDS•In DNA, the bases ALWAYSpair as follows:»Apairs with T (2 H bonds)»Gpairs with C(3 H bonds)
NUCLEIC ACIDSNUCLEIC ACIDS
NUCLEIC ACIDSNUCLEIC ACIDSEach strand of DNAhas a free phosphate groupand one end (5’)and a free sugarat the other end (3’).The free phosphate (5’) end of one strand will line up with the free sugar (3’) end of the other strand.Thus, it is said that the two strands run ANTIPARRALEL– they run in opposite directions relative to one another.Every nucleotide pair is composed of a purine (double ring) facing a pyrimidine (single ring).
NUCLEIC ACIDSNUCLEIC ACIDS•Unlike DNA, RNAis made up of only ONE strand of nucleotidesnucleotides.•All the bases in RNA are the same, except that thymine (T)thymine (T)is replaced by a base called Urasil (U).
NUCLEIC ACIDSNUCLEIC ACIDS•RNA is single stranded–Contains the base Urasil (U) instead of (T)
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