H 2 co 3 hco 3 h the hco 3 forces the equilibrium to

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H 2 CO 3  HCO 3 - + H + The HCO 3 - forces the equilibrium to the left
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Organic Chemistry: the chemistry of Carbon Where does the Carbon in organic systems come from? (Remember: What do trees eat?)
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Carbon and Energy—the big picture CO 2 and H 2 0: the building blocks of life Photosynthesis : 6CO 2 + 6H 2 0  C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 Respiration : Consumption of organic molecules in the presence of O 2 to produce energy, growth, & CO 2 C 6 H 12 O 6 + O 2 Energy (from the Sun) energy
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Overview Carbon: The Backbone of Life Although cells are 70–95% water, the rest of them consists mostly of carbon-based compounds Carbon is unparalleled in its ability to form large , complex , and diverse molecules Proteins, DNA, carbohydrates, and other molecules that distinguish living matter are all composed of carbon compounds
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Organic chemistry Organic chemistry is the study of compounds that contain carbon Organic compounds range from simple molecules to colossal ones Most organic compounds contain hydrogen atoms in addition to carbon atoms We will discuss a branch of organic chemistry called Biochemistry, the study of biological organic molecules
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Simple Building Blocks Major elements of life: C, H, O, N, S, P Flatworm maple human hese elements are the major building blocks of all varieties of life on Eart
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Why Carbon? C -Carbon needs four electrons more in its outer shell to be stable -It prefers to share electrons than to ionize (give or take them) -Thus, it presents opportunities for a maximum number of molecular combinations
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Classes of Organic Chemicals Carbohydrates Steroids Fats and Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids
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C forms four covalent bonds a covalent bond = 1 pair of shared electrons Note 3D shape
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Molecular Diversity Arising from the Carbon Skeleton Carbon chains form the skeletons of most organic molecules Carbon chains vary in length and shape Ethane Propane 1-Butene 2-Butene (c) Double bonds (d) Rings Cyclohexane Benzene Butane 2-Methylpropane (commonly called isobutane) (b) Branching (a) Length
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(a) Length Ethane Propane Ways of increasing molecular diversity
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(b) Branching Butane 2-Methylpropane (commonly called isobutane) Ways of increasing molecular diversity
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(c) Double bonds 1-Butene 2-Butene Double bonds impose rigidity Ways of increasing molecular diversity
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(d) Rings Cyclohexan e Benzene Ways of increasing molecular diversity Note the shorthand ways of indicating rings
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The electron configuration of carbon gives it covalent compatibility with many different elements The valences of carbon and its most frequent partners (hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen) are the “building code” that governs the architecture of living molecules One bond two bonds 3 bonds 4 bonds Ways of increasing molecular diversity Other elements and molecules
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Carbon partnering with oxygen E.g., Carbon dioxide: CO 2 Carbon partnering with Nitrogen (and Oxygen) O = C = O Ways of increasing molecular diversity Attachment to other elements and molecules Urea: CO(NH 2 ) 2
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Hydrocarbons
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