His tolerant attitude notwithstanding carnap has de

This preview shows page 6 - 8 out of 16 pages.

really a separate language. His tolerant attitude notwithstanding, Carnap has de facto always encompassed standard first order logic in his linguistic frameworks for pragmatic reasons. Perhaps more surprisingly, Quine’s attitude is quite similar to Carnap’s, only less tolerant for deviant logic. If one carefully reads Quine’s writings, one must conclude that Quine has always believed that the theorems of first order logic are analytic. In a remarkable passage in an interview with Lars Bergström and Dagfinn Føllesdal in 1993, Quine says: “Yes so, on this score I think of the truths of 6 In a forthcoming article, I analyse the interdependency of the analytic-synthetic distinction as here defined and the a priori –a posteriori distinction in Carnap’s work. In view of the distinction between the two pairs, one could repeat the comparison here presented for Carnap and Quine on the a priori – a posteriori distinctions. 6
Image of page 6
logic as analytic in the traditional sense of the word, that is to say true by virtue of the meaning of the words. Or as I would prefer to put it: they are learned or can be learned in the process of learning to use the words themselves, and involve nothing more” (Quine et al. 1994, 199; see also 1992, 55). This is not a slip of the tongue, but is in accordance with everything Quine has written about logic since the mid-thirties. In his first critical paper on Carnap, ‘Truth by convention’ (1936), Quine took issue with “the conviction that logic and mathematics are purely analytic or conventional”, while the physical sciences are “destined to retain always a non-conventional kernel of doctrine” (Quine 1976, 77). The central point in Quine’s argument is that mathematics cannot be conventional in the way propositional or predicate logic can be conventional. To this end, Quine gives a neat explanation of how the theorems of propositional logic can indeed be true by convention (1976, 92-97). On the basis of Łukasiewicz’s three postulates for the propositional calculus, Quine formulates three conventions for the truth of statement. One such convention, the modus ponens inference rule, is formulated as “ Let any expression be true which yields a truth when put for ‘q’ in the result of putting a truth for ‘p’ in ‘If p then q’ ” (92). Quine concludes that all theorems which can be derived on the bases of these linguistic rules become true by convention (96). He continues that this procedure can be extended, e.g. by adding conventional rules for the use of quantifiers, so to obtain first order logic. In a next step, he argues that further additional rules can be formulated, e.g. Huntington’s postulates in geometry, but the drawback is that also conventions for empirical parts of science can be formulated analogously. In other words, adopting extra-logical conventions blurs the initial analytic/synthetic distinction.
Image of page 7

Want to read all 16 pages?

Image of page 8

Want to read all 16 pages?

You've reached the end of your free preview.

Want to read all 16 pages?

  • Fall '16
  • wolnoski

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern