169 proper pr a i s e 170 how do we transmit a growth

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169 Proper Pr a i s e 170 How do we transmit a growth mind-set to our children? One way is by telling 171 s t or ie s about achievements that result from hard work. For instance, talking 172 about math geniuses who were more or less born that way puts students in a 173 fixed mind-set, but descriptions of great mathematicians who fell in love with 174 math and developed amazing skills engenders a growth mind-set, our 175
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Dweck, C.S. (2007). “The secret to raising smart kids.” Reproduced with permission. Copyright © 2008 Scientific American, Inc. All rights reserved. Grade 11–12/Text 1 This material is copyrighted and therefore must be securely destroyed immediately after use. DO NOT provide a copy of this material to anyone (teacher, student, or otherwise) who is not directly involved with this test administration. studies have shown. People also communicate mind-sets through praise. 176 Although many, if not most, parents believe that they should build up a child 177 by telling him or her how brilliant and talented he or she is, our research 178 suggests that this is misguided. 179 In studies involving several hundred fifth graders published in 1998, for 180 example, Columbia psychologist Claudia M. Mueller and I gave children 181 questions from a nonverbal IQ test. After the first 10 problems, on which 182 most children did fairly well, we praised them. We praised some of them for 183 their intelligence: “Wow . . . that’s a really good score. You must be smart at 184 this.” We commended others for their effort: “Wow . . . that’s a really good 185 score. You must have worked really hard.” 186 We found that intelligence praise encouraged a fixed mind-set more often 187 than did pats on the back for effort. Those congratulated for their intelligence, 188 for example, shied away from a challenging assignment—they wanted an 189 easy one instead—far more often than the kids applauded for their effort. 190 (Most of those lauded for their hard work wanted the difficult problem set from 191 which they would learn.) When we gave everyone hard problems anyway, 192 those praised for being smart became discouraged, doubting their ability. And 193 their scores, even on an easier problem set we gave them afterward, declined 194 as compared with their previous results on equivalent problems. In contrast, 195 students praised for their effort did not lose confidence when faced with the 196 harder questions, and their performance improved markedly on the easier 197 problems that followed. . . . 198
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