Fundamental entire area a species could inhabit

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Fundamental - Entire area a species could inhabit Realized - area a species actually inhabits MacCarther’s warblers Searched for ways different species of finches coexist in the same area Evidence of niche partitioning
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11/19/18 ----------- Competition Exploitation One species lowers the resources of another Contact is unnecessary Interference One species prevents the other from gaining access to a resource Contact is necessary Sympatric species live in close proximity Allopatric species live apart Limnetic: well lit open surface waters Benthic: lowest water area, including the sediment surface 5 means of coexistence Resource partitioning
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11/26/18 ------------ Consumer/resource interactions Not all consumption is by true predators Includes parasites Herbivores eat plants and can be predatory or parasitic Detritivores are consumers that don’t control their prey abundance
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11/28/18 ———— Symbiosis Co-evolution When a species evolves due to interactions with another species Symbiosis When two or more organisms interact in more or less permanent relationships Ex. Lichens Know air is clean if seen A symbiosis between a fungus and a photosynthetic organism Fungi can’t make their own food Fungal cells envelope algae cells Can live in extreme dry environments Ascomycetes fungi Species relationships change over time Communities built from a variety of relationships Species interactions can interact themselves Ex. Sea star eats many mollusks and once the sea star was taken away a dominant mollusk takes over Four main types of symbiosis Parasitism +/- Similar to predation, but the interaction is long term Ectoparasites - external parasites Dog fleas Plants have a lot because they can’t move Monotropa is a parasitic plant Cuscuta Mistletoe Endoparasites - internal parasites Nematodes (ecdysozoans) are most abundant Roundworm In food that is consumed Can be microscopic viruses Can be protists Large worms Effects can vary greatly Must spend time in the outside world to transfer to a new host Complicated life cycle Parasitic flatworm cannot reproduce in ant guts and will go into the ants brain and cause it to clamp onto grass so it’s eaten and the worm can reproduce Mutualism
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