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and “alien religion” It was mostly peasants and the empress called on all Chinese to attack foreigners. They practiced a form of shadow-boxing which they believed could protect them from bullets. Their slogan : “destroy the foreigner” Finally realized that china needed to catch up with outside world, and western policy was to make peace to give time for recovery. British encouraged Qing to “weternize” and there was a major industrialization movement. The fall of the Qing dynasty paved way for the establishment of the republic of china. Version 6: •Qing started to wane in power in the 1850s, around the time of foreign occupation losing Mandate of Heaven •Qing collapsed because… oInternal factors Taiping Rebellion (1850-64 – series of 10 uprisings) exposed social & political problems Qing rulers were unable to deal w/ foreign invasions & domestic disorder
Revolutionaries wanted to drive out “the barbarians” (foreigners Manchus) from China Self-strengthening movement attempt to modernize China after serious of military defeat against the West unsuccessful lost against Japan oExternal factors Opium war Europe found way to turn the flow of trade around through opium •China lost led to Chinese foreign occupation & lots of indemnities and loss of power Foreign occupation of China – “spheres of influence” •Extraterritoriality – foreigners didn’t have to follow Chinese law •Riots against foreigners – Christian missionaries Boxer rebellion o1912 – fall of Qing dynasty by revolutionaries led by Sun Yat-san •Consequences of collapse oAbout 50 yrs of turmoil fight for rule, China became many territories ruled by warlords or other strongmen o1937 – Kuomingtang reunites China under Chiang Kai-Shek Version 7: Qing court collapsed in 1911 External Factors Different concessions made out to foreign powers Sino-French War 1884-85 resulting in loss of Vietnam Sino-Japanese War 1895 resulting in loss of Korea Ryukyu incident in 1874 in which China acknowledged Japan's possession of Ryukyus and their possession of Taiwan General loss of power from the central government First and Second Opium Wars which further decreased the power of the Qing court Western power responsible for Tianjin massacre and stopping the Boxer rebellion Internal Factors Several debts from indemnities Droughts and floods Famine Loss of central government control
Rebellions Boxer rebellion, 1898-1901 Nian Rebellion (Canton) 1851-1868, major economic devastation and loss of life Muslim Rebellion 1862-1877 Taiping rebellion 1850-1854, religious rebellion, contained ~30 million General Anti-Manchu sentiment Anti-Foreign sentiment Manchu reform, in military, education, temporary general assembly Abolishing of Civil Service exams near the end of its life Really started to lose its power by the time of the Opium trade, losing of its silver, and the 1st Opium war After the Qing dissolved, the rest of the empire was broken up among warlords, a chaotic period It was the Nationalists and Communists who tried to reunite the nation