In effect, Maslow proposed a hierarchy of needs -- basic needs and what some have called "metaneeds." The basic needs, displayed in the Table, (and described in the Motivation chapter, Figure are arranged in a hierarchy in which more basic physiological needs must be satisfied before one can cater to more high-level needs. These are the needs of hunger, affection, security, self-esteem, and self-actualization -- the deficiency needs. Metaneeds refer to needs for goodness, order, unity, justice, and so forth. Clearly more than one of the metaneeds may be operating at any given time. Although these are growth needs, serving mainly to enrich the person and the world, they are, according to Maslow, as inherent as the basic needs.
Personality: Theories - Chapter 13 453 PSYCHOLOGY: Exploring Behavior One of Maslow's major contributions was to suggest that healthy people might not simply be the opposite of sick people. He studied a number of people whom he considered to be fully self-actualized in the richest sense of the term -- fully effective, mature human beings, some alive when he studied them, some long dead. Listed in Table 13.3 are some of the things he found healthy, self-actualized people to exhibit. It's an interesting list. Table 13.3 Abraham Maslow's List Of Behaviors Indicating Self-Actualization Self—actualizing people will be: oriented toward reality accepting of self, of others, and of nature more spontaneous problem-centered (not self-centered) more detached from others and desire more privacy self-sufficient and independent more appreciative and intensely emotional more likely to have mystical experiences more identified with humankind involved in rich interpersonal experiences more democratic in attitude markedly more creative aware of needs for improvements in their culture Are you self-actualized yet? How many of the items on this list accurately describe you? The seeming impossibility of leading a life this "good" has been the source of some of the criticism directed at Maslow's theory. A Modern Theory of Personality: Big Five Among the earliest theories of personality to appear were those based on traits which attempted to establish a linkage between features of the body and personality. The early attempts came up dry, but with perseverance and the aid of factor analysis and computers, some encouraging, consistent results have begun to emerge.
Personality: Theories - Chapter 13 454 PSYCHOLOGY: Exploring Behavior Factor analysis is based on analyzing data such as personality test data or personality checklists -- (Which of the following adjectives describe you?). The logic is straightforward: Are there features of personality -- such as introversion and shyness -- which tend to co-occur in humans? The answer turns out to be yes. Theoretically, you could start with large numbers of adjectives and ask people to describe themselves by checking those adjectives, which apply to them more often than not. Factor analyzing the results to determine which adjectives tended to be checked when others were checked
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