and derived physical constants which includes the speed of light (
c
= 3 x 10
8
m/sec),
Avogadro's number (
N
o
= 6.02 x 10
23
/ mole), and universal gas constant (R = 8.23
joules/(mole)(K°).
A comparable table involves numerical data which depend on
circumstances such as geographic location and are, therefore, not strictly physical
constants.
Another table consists of a list of common physical properties which are
represented by symbols including letters of the Greek alphabet.
These numerical data
and material properties form an important component of the language of structural
geology.
Table of symbols for the structural geologist
Symbol
Name
Units
ρ
density
ML
3
σ
stress
ML
1
T
2
τ
shear stress
ML
1
T
2
σ
n
normal stress
ML
1
T
2
ε
strain
dimensionless [LL
1
]
E
Young's Modulus
ML
1
T
2
ν
Poisson's ratio
dimensionless
γ
Engineering shear strain
dimensionless
P
p
pore pressure
ML
1
T
2
φ
porosity
dimensionless
T
temperature
C°
q
heat flow
JL
2
T
1
κ
thermal conductivity
JL
1
T
1
C°
1
z
depth
L
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Table of numerical data for the structural geologist
Symbol
Name
Magnitude
g
average gravity at sea level
9.8 m/sec
2
ρ
m
mean density of the mantle
4.5 x 10
3
kg/m
2
(4.5 g/cm
2
)
ρ
quartz
density of quartz
2.65 x 10
3
kg/m
2
(2.65 g/cm
2
)
Table of conventions for the structural geologist
Name
Convention
Principal stresses
σ
1
>
σ
2
>
σ
3
Stresses in the crust
Maximum horizontal stress
S
H
Minimum horizontal stress
S
h
Vertical horizontal stress
S
v
Compressional normal stress
positive
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 Winter '12
 JOHN
 Factors, Force, Shear Stress, geologist

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