As many as 100,000 Native Americans relocated to the West as a result of this Indian Removal policy. In theory, relocation was supposed to be voluntary and many Native Americans did remain in the East. In practice, great pressure was put on Native American leaders to sign removal treaties. Trail of tears - is a name given to the forced relocation and movement of Native American nations from southeastern parts of the United States following the Indian Removal Act of 1830. The removal included many members of the Cherokee, Muscogee (Creek), Seminole, Chickasaw , and Choctaw nations, among others in the United States, from their homelands to Indian Territory. Many died from disease. Indians realized whites were fighting each other. The Civil War allowed whites to take indian matters into their own hands. Indians offered to join civil war. Indian wars - 1860s-70s. 1862 - 33 santee sioux indians hanged Colonel John Chivington - volunteer cavalry leader. Sand creek massacre - killed lots of women and children in this atrocity when the colorado cavalry attacked friendly cheyenne and arapaho indians. US army horrified, they know massacres can’t happen, but at the same time, they know that the whites are going to win. New goal - take down plains indians. But it’s hard - the indians only fight if they are on the offensive (if they are on the defensive they just ride away). Gold is found in Virginia City after settlers went there via the Bozeman trail (1866-68). The settlers infringe on the Sioux who end up moving west. The sioux adopt a policy of harassment and guerilla warfare. The attempts are led by military chief Red Cloud (who also was a major player in the “Peace Policy”). The indians had some crushing victories. “Peace Policy” (a treaty between US government and the Sioux indians). 2. “The Gold Rush had well defined characteristics unlike any farm settlement frontier.” (Nugent, p. 56) In what ways were they different?
1. Men outnumbered Women - California ratio was 12:1 in 1850 and in the US males held only a 104:100 edge - gradually women came by Panama or overland and by 1890 ratio was 138:100 - Before in 1850’s women were a rarity people should demand appearances of a farm wife - Only among Chinese did the male imbalance grow; 19:1 in 1860 and 22:1 in 1890 2. Preponderance of young adults - Society of restless young men - 1850 92 percent of white californians were between 15 - 45
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- History, Manifest Destiny, Native Americans in the United States, Indian Territory