these areas (Schumann 24). The government also forced the relocation of black South Africans to the Meadowlands in Soweto. These forceful removals greatly affected the music scene of the time—many songs came out in protest of these acts and policies s uc h a s “Meadowlands” by musician Strike Vilakazi (Schumann 24). This song quite literally translated into “We’re moving night and day to go to Meadowlands. We love Meadowlands,” which the government saw as a positive reaction to black South African removal of their homes (Coplan 165). However, it was sung as they watched their possessions taken from them, thus being an ironic tune that developed into a protest anthem for these events at Sophiatown (Allen 235). The acts of the 1950s were met with strong resistance and music, especially, prevailed (Coplan 164). Great achievements in music were made during this time—music was reaching those in different cities of Africa dealing with the same issues and people traveled to hear their favorite musicians perform; enthusiasm for music was at a high (164). Titlestad describes jazz as a “black repertoire of possibility to express South African subaltern suffering,” (211) (subaltern suffering meaning suffering as a result of being treated as a lower status) and has the ability to form to its experience. Additionally, he describes jazz music as texts that portray history of black oppression but also have threads of resistance and resilience embedded within (212). According to Austerlitz, “jazz creates a virtual space where we can confront, learn from, and even heal the contradictions resulting from social rupture” (xvi). It is clear from these findings that jazz was a genre of music that was key to transforming conflict in both South Africa and the Unites States.
16 International Musicians and Mass Media While Freedom songs and Jazz have clearly played an integral role in The Civil Rights Movement and in resisting Apartheid, international musicians through mass media provided further awareness, interconnectedness, and momentum for these movements, and helped to gain support for the end of racial oppression. The use of mass media is something that can only be attributed to globalization. Technology and media, especially at their current speed, have allowed for the music of one person to be shared globally, in an instant. This rapid speed of media, and especially television, are two factors without which, awareness of the Civil Rights Movement and Apartheid regime would have been minimized. It was due to the televised broadcasts of brutality and deep injustice that support for the movements began to grow, “the moral outrage at injustices committed by apartheid became part of Western pop culture through songs such as ‘Biko’ by Peter Gabriel, campaigns such as Sun City organised by Little Steven and the successive Mandela Concerts at Wembley Stadium in London” (Schumann 18). There have been individual songs, like “Blowin in the Wind” by Bob Dylan, which contained lyrics like “Yes, ‘n’ how many years can some people exist before they’re allowed to be free? Yes,