The sound waves cause the eardrum to vibrate 3 small

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The sound waves cause the eardrum to vibrate 3. Small bones (hammer, anvil, and stirrup) in middle ear are then made to vibrate, and they amplify the sound 4. The membrane across the opening between middle ear and inner ear (oval window) next begins to vibrate 5. Vibrations of the oval window cause fluid to move in the cochlea 6. Fluid motions in cochlea cause vibrations in the basilar membrane 7. Vibrations of the basilar membrane are detected by the hair cells lining the basilar membrane
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8. Hair cells trigger release of neurotransmitters, resulting in nerve impulses being sent to the brain How do we Perceive Pitch? - Two sources of information: 1. Which part the basilar membrane is vibrating (Place theory) 2. The rate, or frequency which the basilar membrane vibrates (frequency theory) How do we Localize Sound? - Relative Loudness Head casts a “sound shadow”: sounds coming from the right will sound much louder in your right ear than your left, and vice versa - Difference in Arrival Time When sound directly in front, the eardrums vibrate in synchrony When sound is on the left or right, the eardrums vibrate at different times, because the sound waves reach them at different times The Gustatory System - Taste buds line the trenches around the tiny bumps on the tongue, called papillae (where the taste buds are located) Myths and Truths - Certain areas of your tongue only receive certain tastes eg. Sour, sweet, bitter, etc. Where are Tastes Processed? - Information gets routed through the thalamus and then onto the insular cortex (a.k.a. Gustatory Cortex; in the fold between temporal and parietal lobes), and the postcentral gyrus Taste Preferences - Both Innate and Learned - Innate preferences for sweet flavors and distaste for sour or bitter flavors - There are wide cultural differences in taste preferences Olfaction - Chemical receptors called olfactory cilia are located on the roof of the sinuses (about 350 types) - Particular smells trigger of different combinations of receptors - Olfactory cilia synapse with the olfactory bulb, which sends messages directly to the cortex (no relay through the thalamus) Touch - Three types of sensations: 1. Pressure (light vs. deep) - Mechanoreceptors Specific patches of skin associated with specific parts of cortex 2. Temperature (cold vs. warm) - Thermoreceptors
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Temperature change 3. Pain (dull vs. sharp)- Nociceptors Two pathways to brain: fast and slow Other Senses - Kinesthetic system : receptors in joints and muscles allow us to sense the position and movement of our own body parts (Proprioception) - Vestibular system : receptors in semicircular canals help us stay balanced; compensate for changes in body position; keep the world stable (Equilibrioception) Multisensory Integration - Sensations are processed in different areas of the brain - How do we combine these sensations into a unified whole?
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