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landDivisions between blacks and yeomenDivisions between blacks and southern Whigs/Northern carpetbaggersDivisions between Northern carpetbaggers and Southern Whigs>> Thus: Republican ProgramUniversal manhoodsuffrage (blacks and yeomen)Protect new civil and political rights (blacks)Expand popularly elected offices and reorganize judicial system (blacks and yeomen)Expand public education (blacks and yeomen)Support debtor relief (yeomen)Oppose land reform (commercial whites)Support aid to internal improvement (commercial whites)
Attract northern capital (commercial whites)> With the Republican Program, Republicans sweep powerWin power in every former Confed state except VirginiaWhite Republicans dominated state leadership in high positionsBlacks majority of legislatures and many local level leadership positionsPower was wielded on a local level: sheriff, jury, magistrate, etc.Can effect change on a local level and the possibility of justice that was not there before16 blacks elected to Congress2 blacks elected to SenateBlanche Bruce - former slaveHiram Revels - freeborn, took Jefferson Davis' seat1500+ blacks served in local office>> Republican achievementRebuilding infrastructure of South, especially railroadsEnlarged public sector and public services - first public school systems in the SouthFormer slaves have access to educationIncreased taxes and shifted tax base to land - could promote land reformLocal black and white officeholders offer former slaves a way to address grievances - help laborers limit exploitationBlacks can serve on juriesResisted in many ways by former slaveholders and their allies, lampooned in many waysGave rise to many stereotypesRepublican misruleRelationship between image of African Americans in political office then, and nowCarpetbaggersBlack idlenessFreeing the slaves created new institutionsDemocratic party in the South1832 - 1854 - Democrats and Whigs1854 - 1867 - Democrats and ???1867 - 1877 - Democrats and RepublicansDemocratic party had some real challenges to face once the Civil War came to an endWas associated with secession and defeat in the SouthWas associated with disloyalty in the North because it was sympathetic to the rebellion or hostile to the Lincoln administrationFind a new name for itself - called themselves the Conservative PartySplit into two factionsNew Departure Democrats- accept black suffrage and try to attract black votesLooking to a new futureEmphasis on paternalism and patronageAppeal to wealthy planters (Southern whites affiliated with Whigs) and urban typesModerate Democrats and former WhigsAccepts outcome of war: that Confederate rebellion was defeated, slaves freed, slaves get civil rightsTry to appeal to black voters
Tell black voters that they will "look out" for black voters, they will "take care" of black voters (paternalistic to the extreme)> Trying to make it in a new reality> African Americans did not end up voting for them - it was largely rejectedWhite Line Democrats