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-Do you think Greek society was more or less free than the others we’ve examined? Explain why or why not.-Compare Athenian and Spartan society.-Compare popular religion in this time and place to its contemporary philosophical traditions. What is similar and what is different? What is the difference between philosophy and religion?Chapter 11: Mediterranean Society: The Roman PhaseSome key terms*Paul of Tarsus- Extends teachings far beyond Jewish circles, Traveled widely, Missionary activity, used the Roman roads to travelRomulus and Remus, descendants of Aeneas (legendary): founders of rome. They were suckled by a wolf and fed by a woodpecker. Rome was named after Romulus.Etruscans: from Anatolia (Turkey). They were there before Rome. They ended due to Greek expansion and Celtic invasion.Gaul (today, France): Celtics attacked the Etruscans from Gaul. Julius Caesar had public spectacles and victories here. Roman republic: Built the Roman forum, established a Republican Constitution. Had 2 consuls. The senate was appointed by the consuls.Two ruling consuls (civil and military): Rome instituted a republican constitution that entrustedexecutive responsibilities to 2 consuls who wielded civil and military power. They were elected by an assembly dominated by members of the elite class determined by birth.
Senate: had Patrician members (rich) who advised the consuls. Had conflict between the PlebiansPatricians- AristocratsPlebeians- CommonersTribunes: Elected by the Plebians to represent them in the senate. Tribunes had the power tointervene in all political matters and had the right to veto measures that they judged unfair.Twelve Tables: Laws that were inspired by Greek laws in establishing a framework for social organization of Rome: innocent until proven guilty and you have the right to challenge your accuser in courtDictator-allowed to be appointed in times of crisis (six months) Carthage: was in northern Africa, was a strategic location for trade, became the dominant political power in north Africa The Punic Wars: Rome vs Carthage, fought over Sicilian grain, Rome wins and dominates the MediterranianSicily: Most important source of grain Latifunidia- Roman land plantationsTiberius Gracchus-Attempted to limit land holdings of aristocrats, assassinatedGaius Gracchus-Attempted to limit land holdings of aristocrats, execuGaius Marius-Takes Rome for reformersLucius Cornelius Sulla- Drives Marius out for the conservatives, reign of terror follows in chaotic struggle over reform or aristocratic conservatism Gaius Julius Caesar (also known as Julius Caesar), nephew of Gaius Marius: while the Civil War was happening, Julius Caesar was fighting and winning and gaining popularity. He later crosses the Rubicon and takes Rome. He proclaimed himself as dictator for life. Implementedcentralized military governance under personal control. Redistributed land to veterans. Made province citizenship. Was assassinated by aristocrats.