However heide johansson and simonsson argue that the

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research perspectives. However, Heide, Johansson and Simonsson argue that the tripar- tite distinction is sufficient and that these three perspectives follow the development in social science with the cultural turn in the 1980s and the critical turn in the 1990s. In previous reviews, the classical perspective has been found to embrace the largest number of studies and the critical perspective the smallest number (Wert-Gray et al. 1991). Looking at Swedish research we find a totally different pattern. Studies analyzing internal communication in organizations are of a similar kind – in spite of the fact that they are from different academic fields, as mentioned above. Most studies can be placed in the interpretive perspective, with researchers advocating one or other type of basic outlook based in social constructionism. This can possibly depend on the late develop- ment of Swedish research, with early studies published in the 1990s and onwards. Nev- ertheless, the resemblance of the perspective employed in the different studies carried out independently of each other is striking. Regarding research in public information, a development from a more sender-ori- ented perspective towards more receiver-oriented perspective can be traced. Within crisis communication, most of the studies are descriptive, telling the story of the crisis, and simultaneously analyzing communication strategies chosen by governmental organi-
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105 zations and media content. Further, the attitudes of ordinary citizens on these commu- nication strategies and media content are measured. Rarely, a more critical perspective is chosen. An exception is Sjölander’s study (2004), which contains an analysis inspired by Foucault’s theories. Also, Alvesson (2002, 1996) employed Foucault’s as well as Habermas’ theories in differing critical readings of a business meeting, and Larsson (2005b) discussed democracy problems in a public opinion climate directed by consultants, as mentioned above. Reseach Methods: Case Studies Swedish research on organizational communication is predominated by empirical case studies. Either one or a few organizations, an event / a crisis, or an information campaign is the subject of study. Ensuing from this situation, qualitative methods such as interviews and observations or a combination of different qualitative methods are most often used. Studies employing quantitative methods are more rare. Most researchers who engage in case studies use a combination of different qualitative methods, preferably interviews, observations, qualitative document analyses and/or content analyses. Some of the studies stand out by their design. This is true of the studies on information campaigns (Palm 1994, Linderholm 1997), and also of the experimental study on communication strategies in a health care organization, mentioned above (Alström and Sjöblom-Nordgren 1999).
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