GRASSLAND •Location: Every continent except Antarctica •Description: Grasslands are big open spaces. There are not many bushes in the grassland. Trees are found only by rivers and streams. •Plants: Grasses (prairie clover, salvia, oats, wheat, barley, coneflowers)•Animals: Many large herds of grazing animals such as zebras or bison. Animals live in herds for protection, because there are few trees and bushes to camouflage themselves. HUMAN IMPACT ON GRASSLAND BIOME Human causes of ecosystem destruction and negative impacts1. Hunting for food, particularly bison. Use of horses and rifles increases rate of killing.2. Trapping (fur traders) –bison and elk in the 18th & 19th century. Large mammals greatly reduced in number from many millions to now just existing in protected areas.3. Cattle ranching in the west. Overgrazing a problem and irrigation was needed to produce fodder crops for winter, this use of water lowered the water table.4. Cereal farming –took off after 1840s with the use of a steel plough.Overcultivation in 1930s lead to soil erosion –Dust Bowl.Worsened by droughts in 1950 & 1985.Some fields lost 1m depth of soil to the wind.5. Intensive Cattle Production e.g. Denver –cattle fattened in stockyards on grain & silage produced on the prairie. Benefit over ranching is that animals do not lose condition by being left to roam freely. Soil in stockyard areas suffer from severe trampling. Human causes & impacts continued…6.Mineral extraction- from 1970s strip mining of coal & oil exploration (50 wells).Many roads, railways and pipelines had to be built –loss of grassland habitat and associated fauna.7. Damming of major river to allow for flood control and irrigation schemes. Leads to areas of grassland being flooded by reservoirs, and areas downstream of dams drying up because of reduced river discharge and less risk of flooding.8. Draining of wetland areas for crops –flora and fauna completely changed. TUNDRA •Location: Regions south of the ice caps in the Artic. In North America, Europe, and •Siberia.•Description: Coldest biome and also covers 1/5 of the Earth‟s surface.•Plants: lichens, mosses, grasses, sedges, shrubs. Almost no trees due to short growing season and permafrost•Animals: Every animal must adapt in order to survive. Some have grown thick fur which turns white in the winter. Others find a place to hibernate during the winter months.
Prepared by SANDEEP MAKHE for MYP 5 - I & S Department 2018-19 Page 14 HUMAN IMPACTS ON TUNDRA BIOMES Effects of human activities and climate change. Earth's tundra regions are harsh and remote, so fewer humans have settled there than in other environments. ... Hunting, oil drilling, and other activities have polluted the environment and have threatened wildlife in tundra ecosystems. AQUATIC BIOMES Key characteristics of the aquatic biome: largest of all the world's biomes dominated by water life first evolved in the aquatic biome a three-dimensional environment that exhibits distinct zones of communities ocean temperatures and currents play a key role in world's climate