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In fact time spent by these workers remained

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In fact, time spent by these workers remained remarkably constant―at about 52 to 54 hours per week―from the 1920’s to the 1960’s, a period (25) of significant change in household technology. In surveying two centuries of household technology in the United States, Cowan argued that the “industrialization” of the home (30) often resulted in more work for full-time home workers because the use of such devices as coal stoves, water pumps, and vacuum cleaners tended to reduce the workload of married- 2
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(35) women’s helpers (husbands, sons, daughters, and servants) while promoting a more rigorous standard of housework. The full-time home worker’s duties also shifted to include (40) more household management, child care, and the post-Second World War phenomenon of being “Mom’s taxi.” -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Q4: According to the passage, which of the following is true about the idea mentioned in line 1? A. It has been undermined by data found in time-use surveys conducted by home economists. B. It was based on a definition of housework that was explicitly rejected by Vanek and Cowan. C. It is more valid for the time period studied by Cowan than for the time period studied by Vanek. D. It is based on an underestimation of the time that married women spent on housework prior to the industrialization of the household. E. It inaccurately suggested that new household technologies would reduce the effort required to perform housework. Answer: -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Q5: The passage is primarily concerned with -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Q6: The passage suggests that Vanek and Cowan would agree that modernizing household technology did not 3
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----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- - Q7 to Q10: In recent years, Western business managers have been heeding the exhortations of busi- Line ness journalists and academics (5) to move their companies toward long-term, collaborative “strategic partnerships” with their external business partners (e.g., suppliers). The experts’ advice comes as (10) a natural reaction to numerous studies conducted during the past decade that compared Japanese production and supply practices with those of the rest of the world. (15) The link between the success of a certain well-known Japanese automaker and its effective management of its suppliers, for example, has led to an unques- (20) tioning belief within Western management circles in the value of strategic partnerships. Indeed, in the automobile sector all three United States manufacturers and (25) most of their European competitors
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