Each region has space for a specific number of electrons The first energy level

Each region has space for a specific number of

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Regions around an atom’s nucleus where electrons orbit. Each region has space for a specific number of electrons. The first energy level has room for two electrons. The second energy level has room for eight electrons. An atom is most stable when its energy levels are filled with electrons.
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Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer • All Rights Reserved Elements (cont.) Energy Levels (cont.) Hydrogen Carbon Total number of electrons 1 6 Number of electrons in first energy level 1 2 Number of electrons in second energy level 0 4
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Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer • All Rights Reserved Elements (cont.) Energy Levels (cont.) An atom will form chemical bonds with other atoms to fill its outermost energy level. An atom will donate, accept, or share electrons to fill its outermost energy level.
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Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer • All Rights Reserved Figure 2-3 Examples of atoms. How many electrons does oxygen need to complete its outermost energy level? How does magnesium achieve a stable outermost energy level? Elements (cont.)
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Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer • All Rights Reserved Elements (cont.) Checkpoints 2-1 What are atoms? 2-2 What are three types of particles found in atoms? 2-3 Which of these atoms would be more likely to participate in a chemical reaction—an atom with eight electrons in its outermost energy level or an atom with six electrons in its outermost energy level?
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Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer • All Rights Reserved Elements (cont.) ? Pop Quiz 2.1 Which element makes up the greatest percentage of body weight? A) Nitrogen B) Oxygen C) Potassium D) Sodium
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Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer • All Rights Reserved Elements (cont.) ? Pop Quiz Answer 2.1 Which element makes up the greatest percentage of body weight? A) Nitrogen B)Oxygen C) Potassium D) Sodium
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Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer • All Rights Reserved Elements (cont.) ? Pop Quiz 2.2 The atomic number of iron is 26. How many protons does iron have? A) 13 B) 26 C) 39 D) 52
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Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer • All Rights Reserved Elements (cont.) ? Pop Quiz Answer 2.2 The atomic number of iron is 26. How many protons does iron have? A) 13 B)26 C) 39 D) 52
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Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer • All Rights Reserved Chemical Bonds Learning Objectives 3. Differentiate between ionic and covalent bonds. 4.Define an electrolyte. 5. Differentiate between molecules and compounds.
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Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer • All Rights Reserved Chemical Bonds (cont.) An atom forms chemical bonds with other atoms to fill its outermost energy level with electrons. Electrons may be transferred between atoms. Electrons may be shared between atoms.
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Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer • All Rights Reserved Chemical Bonds (cont.) Valence The number of bonds an atom needs to fill its outermost energy level. Example A carbon atom has six electrons. Its outermost energy level contains four electrons.
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