11 ethics rules require that auditors avoid auditing

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11. Ethics rules require that auditors avoid auditing clients in which they have a direct investment, or if the auditor’s fee is dependent on the figures in the client’s reports. This will help prevent others from doubting the quality of the auditor’s report. 12. In addition to preparing tax returns, tax accountants help companies and individuals plan future transactions to minimize the amount of tax to be paid. They are also actively involved in estate planning and in helping set up organizations. Some tax accountants work for regulatory agencies such as the IRS or the various state departments of revenue. These tax accountants help to enforce tax laws. 13. The objectivity concept means that financial statement information is supported by independent, unbiased evidence other than someone’s opinion or imagination. This concept increases the reliability and verifiability of financial statement information. 14. This treatment is justified by both the cost principle and the going-concern assumption. 15. The revenue recognition principle provides guidance for managers and auditors so they know when to recognize revenue. If revenue is recognized too early, the business looks more profitable than it is. On the other hand, if revenue is recognized too late the business looks less profitable than it is. This principle demands that revenue be recognized when it is both earned (when service or product provided) and can be measured reliably. The amount of revenue should equal the value of the assets received or expected to be received from the business’s operating activities covering a specific time period. 16. Business organizations can be organized in one of three basic forms: sole proprietorship, partnership, or corporation. These forms have implications for legal liability, taxation, continuity, number of owners, and legal status as follows: Proprietorship Partnership Corporation Business entity yes yes yes Legal entity no no yes Limited liability no* no* yes Unlimited life no no yes Business taxed no no yes One owner allowed yes no yes * Proprietorships and partnerships that are set up as LLCs provide limited liability . 17. (a) Assets are resources owned or controlled by a company that are expected to yield future benefits. (b) Liabilities are creditors’ claims on assets that reflect obligations to provide assets, products or services to others. (c) Equity is the owner’s claim on assets and is equal to assets minus liabilities. (d) Net assets refer to equity. 18. Equity is increased by investments from the owner and by net income (which is the excess of revenues over expenses). It is decreased by withdrawals by the owner and by a net loss (which is the excess of expenses over revenues). 1-2
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Chapter 01 - Accounting in Business 19. Accounting principles consist of (a) general and (b) specific principles.
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