Analyze the steps of the arachidonic acid pathway and describe the implications for treatment of inflammation. Disorders of the Immune System 5. Analyze disorders which affect immune function. c. Allergic immune response Exaggerated against environmental antigens (hypersensitivity) d. Autoimmunity : disturbance in the immunologic tolerance of self-antigens (immune system usually doesn’t recognize individual’s own antigens. Reaction causes person’s own tissues to be damaged by autoantibodies (low quantity of antibodies against their own antigens) or autoreactive T cells. AKA autoimmune disease e. Allo-immunity: AKA iso-immunity occurs when the immune system of one individual produces an immunologic reactions against tissues of another individual (Ie: transfusions, transplanted tissue, fetus during pregnancy) Etiology Clinical Manifestations Pathophysiology Systemic Lupus Erythematosu s (autoimmune) Diverse maternal autoantibodies induce anomalies (ie: congential heart defects) in the fetus or cause pregnancy loss -Maternal alloantibody transported across placenta to fetal circulation -Disease process develops slowly, up to 10 years from occurrence of first antibody until diagnosis Chronic, multisystem inflammatory disease -Large antibodies produced nucleic acids (*DNA, RNA), erythrocytes, coag proteins, phospholipids, lymphocytes, platelets - DNA in circulation from cellular damage in response to trauma, drugs, infections that are usually removed by the liver > for deposition in the kidneys -*NO CURE, tx symptoms -Nsaids (ASA, ibuprofen) to reduce inflammation, relieve pain -Protect from sun exposure -Immunosuppresive drugs (IVIg) Complement participation -Neutrophils involved -IgG, IgM -Type II (tissue specific hypersensitivity) -Can cause inflammatory lesions -More often in women -Flares up from environmental agents (UV light, infections) -Difficult to diagnose (4/11 to be diagnosed on list) Rheumatoid Arthritis Chronic inflammatory disorder that affects joints + wide variety of body systems (skin, eyes, lungs, heart & blood vessels) -Autoimmune disorder -Immune system mistakenly attacks your own body’s Affects lining of your joints -RA has acute onset with general systemic symptoms of inflammation -Local manifestations occur gradually over weeks/months -Causes painful swelling that can eventually lead to bone erosion and joint deformity, may lose mobility/ ROM During inflammation, argine (an amino acid) can be enzymatically modified into another amino acid (citrulline)= changes structure and function of protein and cause cell death -Promotes osteoclast formation, causing
tissues -Stifness lasts for ~1 hour in the morning, may be caused by synovitis -Inflammation associated is what can damage other parts of the body as well bony erosion f. Analyze the pathophysiology of solid organ transplant rejection and describe the clinical implications for treatment.
- Fall '15
- Spring 2018