Study Guide abnormal Exam 4 review

Know the characteristics of adhd and the subtypes

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Know the characteristics of ADHD and the subtypes (Inattentive, Hyperactive/Impulsive, and Combined). - Conduct disorder
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o In childhood; a violation of the basic rights of others or of societal norms that are appropriate to the individual’s age o Four categories of behaviors: Aggression to people and animals Destruction of property Deceitfulness or theft Serious violation of rules - Those with conduct disorder: Are likely to use and abuse substances at an earlier age Are more likely to have problems in school, legal problems, unplanned pregnancies, sexually transmitted diseases, and injuries from fighting May have poor academic achievement and score lower than normal on verbal intelligence tests - Oppositional defiant disorder o In childhood; overt disobedience, hostility, defiance, and negativity toward people in authority o Not usually violent or causing severe harm o Often exhibited only in specific situations with parents or other well-known adults - Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) o Typically arises in childhood o Inattention, hyperactivity, and/or impulsivity o Unintentionally behaving disruptively o Must impair functioning in at least two settings, such as school and home o Three types: Hyperactive/Impulsive type Disruptive behaviors, accidents, and rejection by peers Inattentive type Difficulty remembering a sequence of behaviors, monitoring and shifting direction of attention, organizing material to be memorized Combined type Symptoms of both inhibitor Know the neurological features of ADHD. How is self-esteem/self-concept affected in kids with ADHD? What role does heredity appear to play in ADHD? - - ADHD is associated with: neurological factors o Impaired executive function o Inability to estimate time accurately o Affects ability to plan and follow through on commitments o Impaired frontal lobe functioning and smaller frontal lobe size o Problems in interactions between brain areas o Difficulties suggest problems with multiple neurotransmitters such as dopamine o Among the most heritable of psychological disorders - ADHD: o Self-esteem may be related to parents’ attributions Don’t give their children as much credit for positive behaviors as
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parents of children without ADHD May feel frustrated and pessimistic about their children’s abilities and behavior o Oppositional defiant and conduct disorders All social factors associated with ADHD, as well as: Harsh or inconsistent punishment, family history of substance abuse Exposure to neglect or violence Parental neglect or inconsistent parenting - Many medications for ADHD are stimulants o Dopamine reuptake inhibitors o Ritalin, Concerta, and Focalin (methylphenidate) o Adderall (amphetamine) o 65–75% of those who receive stimulants improve Also use atomoxetine (Strattera) Noradrenaline reuptake Behavioral methods may focus on helping children restrain behavior and accept delayed reward
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