27. Describe how the sodium potassium pump helps the neuron maintain the resting membrane potential. 28. Describe salutatory conduction. What is needed in order to do salutatory conduction? Multiple sclerosis leads to loss of the myelin within the neurons of the white matter. What is the result? 29. What is the difference between innate immunity and acquired (adaptive) immunity? Name some examples of each type of immunity. Which immune system(s) do invertebrates have? Vertebrates? 30. Name examples of phagocytic leukocytes? Are they part of the innate (nonspecific) or acquired (specific) immune system? 31. Name and describe the two branches of the acquired (specific) immune response? Why is the acquired immune system called the specific response? 32. Describe the process of clonal selection for b-cells & t-cells 33. How is a cell tagged with antigens? 34. Name three types of antigen presenting cells. What type of cell do they present their antigens to? How does this lead to the activation of the acquired (specific) immune response. 35. How do cytotoxic T-cells eliminate infected cells? How do antibodies affect invaders? What cell releases antibodies? 36. How do the humoral and cell-mediated response systems complement each other in getting rid of a specific type of a pathogen? 37. Why is the immune response quicker and of a greater magnitude to the subsequent times that you are exposed to the same pathogen compared to the first time? Would the same be true of the immune system of invertebrates? Why or why not? 38. What is active immunity? What leads to active immunity? How is it different than passive immunity? 39. How does HIV lead to AIDs? Why is AIDs so dangerous? 40. What leads to auto-immune diseases? 41. Describe the differences between invertebrate, vertebrate & plant immune systems.
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