Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease copd 1 includes

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Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)1. includes chronic bronchitis and empysema2. difficult to maintain nutritional status; requires too much energy to eat3. cycle of anorexia, inadequate dietary intake, malnutrition, and decreased pulmonary function4. poor prognosisNutritional comorbidity1. Small frequent meals 2. Carbohydrates for energy3. Balanced proportion of nutrients:a. protein: 15-25%b. fat 30-45%c. carbohydrate: 40-55%4. Avoid dairy to prevent mucous buildupModule 8 Chapter 22 Diabetes Mellitus04/24/2016
Study Outline Exam Three: Modules 6, 7 & 816Type 1: sudden, severe insulin deficiency requiring insulin therapy to prevent ketocacidosis, coma and deathEtiology1. immune-mediated: cellular-mediated autoimmune destruction of beta cells of pancreas2. Idiopathic: has no known causeType 2: insulin resistance and obesity combined with inadequate insulin productioncauses, people at risk1. Obesity2. Inadequate insulin production or resistance3. Genetics4. Sedentary lifestyle5. Associated with metabolic syndrome:a. elevated BMI and waist circumferenceb. elevated blood pressurec. high blood lipid levelsd. elevated blood glucose and insulin levelse. overweightIndications of diabetes (signs, symptoms)oType 11. increased thirst (polydipsia)2. increased urination (polyuria)3. increased hunger (polyphagia)4. weight loss5. fruity smell to the breath (sign of ketoacidosis)6. fatigue or weaknessoType 204/24/2016
Study Outline Exam Three: Modules 6, 7 & 8171. poor wound healing2. blurred vision3. recurrent gum or bladder infections4. skin irritation or infectionNutrition therapyType 11. Goal is to achieve and maintain as normal blood glucose levels as possible: HbA1c 7% or below2. Adverse effects of intensive therapy:a. increase in severe hypoglycemiab. weight gain of 10 poundsType 21.glycemic control reduces the risk of cardiovascular diseaseCarbohydrate countingo15 g of carbohydrate = 1 carb servingAlcohol Can cause hyperglycemia and hypoglycemiaThe liver stops making glucose while cleansing alcohol from the body.Alcohol also increases serum cholesterol levels, although this effect is transient. In addition, it can lead to hyperlipoproteinemia, with high triglyceride levels in susceptible individuals, including persons with diabetes, when it is excessive. Alcohol can also make neuropathy and retinopathy worse.Use alcohol only in moderation (one drink/day for women, two drinks/day for men).oOne drink = 12 oz regular beer, 5 oz wine, or image oz of 80-proof distilled spirits (whiskey, scotch, rye, vodka, brandy, cognac, rum).Never drink alcohol on an empty stomach.Some medications may not mix with alcohol; check with physician or pharmacist.Never drink and drive.04/24/2016
Study Outline Exam Three: Modules 6, 7 & 818Never drink if pregnant or trying to become pregnant.

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