jurafsky&martin_3rdEd_17 (1).pdf

1 bass 1 deep 6 having or denoting a low vocal or

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1. bass 1 , deep 6 - (having or denoting a low vocal or instrumental range) “a deep voice”; “a bass voice is lower than a baritone voice”; “a bass clarinet” Figure 17.1 A portion of the WordNet 3.0 entry for the noun bass . Note that there are eight senses for the noun and one for the adjective, each of which has a gloss (a dictionary-style definition), a list of synonyms for the sense, and gloss sometimes also usage examples (shown for the adjective sense). Unlike dictionaries, WordNet doesn’t represent pronunciation, so doesn’t distinguish the pronunciation [b ae s] in bass 4 , bass 5 , and bass 8 from the other senses pronounced [b ey s]. The set of near-synonyms for a WordNet sense is called a synset (for synonym synset set ); synsets are an important primitive in WordNet. The entry for bass includes synsets like { bass 1 , deep 6 } , or { bass 6 , bass voice 1 , basso 2 } . We can think of a synset as representing a concept of the type we discussed in Chapter 19. Thus, instead of representing concepts in logical terms, WordNet represents them as lists of the word senses that can be used to express the concept. Here’s another synset example: { chump 1 , fool 2 , gull 1 , mark 9 , patsy 1 , fall guy 1 , sucker 1 , soft touch 1 , mug 2 } The gloss of this synset describes it as a person who is gullible and easy to take advantage of . Each of the lexical entries included in the synset can, therefore, be used to express this concept. Synsets like this one actually constitute the senses associated with WordNet entries, and hence it is synsets, not wordforms, lemmas, or individual senses, that participate in most of the lexical sense relations in WordNet. WordNet represents all the kinds of sense relations discussed in the previous section, as illustrated in Fig. 17.2 and Fig. 17.3 . WordNet hyponymy relations cor-
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306 C HAPTER 17 C OMPUTING WITH W ORD S ENSES Relation Also Called Definition Example Hypernym Superordinate From concepts to superordinates breakfast 1 ! meal 1 Hyponym Subordinate From concepts to subtypes meal 1 ! lunch 1 Instance Hypernym Instance From instances to their concepts Austen 1 ! author 1 Instance Hyponym Has-Instance From concepts to concept instances composer 1 ! Bach 1 Member Meronym Has-Member From groups to their members faculty 2 ! professor 1 Member Holonym Member-Of From members to their groups copilot 1 ! crew 1 Part Meronym Has-Part From wholes to parts table 2 ! leg 3 Part Holonym Part-Of From parts to wholes course 7 ! meal 1 Substance Meronym From substances to their subparts water 1 ! oxygen 1 Substance Holonym From parts of substances to wholes gin 1 ! martini 1 Antonym Semantic opposition between lemmas leader 1 () follower 1 Derivationally Lemmas w/same morphological root destruction 1 () destroy 1 Related Form Figure 17.2 Noun relations in WordNet.
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